Using the Internet, seek out different kinds of art works--art that is not conventionally considered art. Choose two specific "works of art" that intrigue you. Some examples of unusual art are: environmental art, performance art, graffiti, tattoos, snow sculpture, sidewalk chalk art, sand sculpture and found object art.
One thing similarly shared by unusual arts is how they seem to be fleeting incoherent artforms that is subjected to time. These contemporary art use modern materials found in an urban landscape and are often common and ordinary materials.
One of the considered unusual art is Performance art which is a moment that takes place in real time using the body as the medium of expression. Performance artists are usually concerned of social change and would like to make an impact in the world or a statement about it. Performance art was said to be largely inspired by Stephane Mallarme who had rid of all the artistic limits and conventions. They wanted to take image and text out of paper and into movement (Wilson, 1997). The body is all "material, process, and site" in which artists attempt to mold culture and identity. This cannot be confused to Theatre because theatre employs the use of characters that actors must play and base. Performance art offers nothing but the self, and their own experiences about the world and life. The fact that this is temporal and can't be pinned down into a concrete text makes Performance art an unusual art. It is also uninhibited and anything from the graceful to the most outrageous and scandalous can take place. Libby Brooks of the Guardian ask, "What's the difference between performance art and making a fool of yourself in public?"
Scholars do not agree on Performance Art's Form. This is because it does not have a specific form. It is at its best, a multimedia form using the artist's body. The subject matter varies, but one thing that remains seemingly constant in Performance Art is the presence of a statement whether social, political, economic or even, environmental. It really defies categorization that it can represent, display an abstract thought. It can be literal or just downright obscure.
Another unusual art is sidewalk chalk art which is a very straight forward artform unlike Performance Art's capacity to be vague and abstract. Sidewalk chalk art's use seems to be largely ornamental and decorative as it is eager to display colours and optical illusions (in the case of the 3D arts). These arts can be found in urban settings and are brilliant and vibrant in their designs and colours. Few has been written about chalk art and it is a very new art. Its form is the cemented or tiled ground and chalks, the subject matter ranges from paintings, 3D illusions, portraits and illustrations all rendered realistically that would give a brilliant pop-out effect when seen on ground. Its subject matter varies from Classical to renaissance. These art are representational at best and somehow its beauty is due to its fleeting temporariness.
Wilson, M. (1997) "Performance Art: (Some) Theory and (Selected) Practice at the End of This Century. Art Journal. Vol. 56, No. 4.
Assignment Type: Individual Project Deliverable Length: 1 Page Points Possible: 100 Due Date: 3/25/2006
It was Encarta itself that questioned the utilization of one sole definition in explaining Art. However for the sake of convenience, the definition they provided will be used.
Art, the product of creative human activity in which materials are shaped or selected to convey an idea, emotion, or visually interesting form.
1. Painting http://www.ece.mcgill.ca/~ehab/scream.jpg
The painting featured is Edward Munch's The Scream painted in 1893. This clearly shows the emotion of screaming. A figure, clearly horrified screams out against the red skies and the wavy distorted ocean. The painting does not only depict emotion but also inspires one, though perhaps not of screaming, rage, or anger. The painting in fact would inspire despair and sadness as the figure is overwhelmed by the wavy background. The horror of the painting and the colours gives off a mixture of fear and desolation.
2. Sculpture http://www.wga.hu/art/s/slodtz/paul_amb/icarus.jpg
The sculpture featured is Paul Amb's The Dead Icarus sculpted in 1743. The sculpture portrays the dead Icarus from Greek myth, sprawled dramatically in nude physique on his wings and ribbons that used to hold him to the sky. Underneath him are also waves in their rice and fall. The sculpture is dramatic at its best while at the same time inspiring a sense of tragedy, grief and horror at the fallen body.
3. Architecture (http://img1.travelblog.org/Photos/7457/22535/f/106152-Prague-Checz-Republic--Fred--Ginger-Frank-Gehry-0.jpg)
Called the Fred and Ginger Building by architect Frank Gehry, this is found in Czch Republic. The eccentric buildings are supposed to mirror dancers of the vaudeville past and thus are supposed to convey movement from the curvceous glass dress and the bouncing windows. It was a restoration after the building has been bombed. The Dancing House is an example of what is called catastrophic architecture. The design is postmodern, which stands out like a foreign object in a town that has otherwise a historical background. The building conveys the idea of dancing and expresses the personal sentiment of the creator. It did not only stand as one random building. It stands out because it tells something.
4. Photography (http://www.andy-julia-photography.com/art/forgottenones/lost/images/andyjulia_lost11.jpg)
The photograph by Andy Julia is of a silhouette of a woman. She stands in the midst of a horzon, emanating and communicating a sense of being "lost in the midst".
One of the foremost printmaking artist is probably Andy Warhol. His famous printmaking subject matters involve Marilyn Monroe and a Campbell can. This particular piece features Marilyn Monroe, a controversial artpiece because many critics contested against the artistic credibility of the work. They deem it effortless and cheap. But this still qualifies as art according to Encarta's definition as it does make a commentary on popular culture and how Marilyn Monroe is replicated by mass consumer/commercial culture. Marilyn is a movie star who has been sold, commodified, multiplied to fit consumer sensibilities. The work depicts the postmodern popular culture which had epitomized the senseless duplication and desires of the masses. It makes a commentary on American life and Hollywood celebrities.
6. Conceptual Art (http://www.tate.org.uk/collection/T/T01/T01909_9.jpg)
Conceptual art is a very straightforward art which, still within definition, is a product of creative human activity wherein materials are shaped and selected in the communication of an idea. It's very contemporary and geared on the urbanized setting. Clock (One and Five) by Joseph Kosuth presents two clocks and printed texts. It displays basic functionality.
7. Installation Art (http://www.cca.org.hk/issues/DOV/DOV_and_art/IMG_0058.jpg)
The Installation Art by Jeb Crevin Garcia, Abi Navarez, Diane Theodore, Kent Yoder, and Lei Garcia is called "onward to peace like the geese". The art appears with hundreds to thousands of paper geese that displays unity, leadership and perseverance. This particular art inspires an idea and emotion of peace and harmony brought by geese who cooperate with each other towards one goal. There may be another interpretation. One may be reminded of Sadako's 1000 paper cranes which was inspired by a little girl's desire to survive a terminal illness. She folded 1000 cranes that had inspired how a single person can try to build something remarkable despite all costs.
8. Performance Art
Performance Art are often untitled and anonymous. This is because performance has a specific span of time and some artists do not announce their performances. They merely come in one moment and perform. The particular picture above is one such example. One will notice the amused spectators who have become sudden audiences to the spectacle brought by the five black clad individuals, hauling a rough mannequin. It is abstract, but it suggests a statement of the human condition. Most Performance artists parade as a form of protest or a call for change. These individuals are undoubtedly attempting to do that by using their performance to communicate an idea.
Assignment Type: Discussion Board Deliverable Length: 3-4 Paragraphs
Points Possible: 75 Due Date: 4/1/2006
From the list below, choose one Greek work of art and one Roman work of art and compare and contrast them according to the criteria listed:
The Doryphoros and Augustus of Primaporta both portray the mastery of the human nude as constructed by the Greeks and the Romans. Both statues do not only display the human physique but also the grace of his movement. The statues both portray realism and at the same time, the idealized Greek and ROman. Scholars are led to believe that the Augustus is based on Doryphoros due to the similarities of canon standards in sculpting. The proportion, posture and the raised right leg mirror each other. One version of the Doryphoros had the tree trunk that the Augustus statue has (covered by the Cupid riding on a dolphin) (Wilkins, Schultz and Linduff, 2001).
The Doryphoros is a 6 foot marble nude statue while Augustus is nearly 7 foot, also made of marble but unlike the Doryphoros, it is covered by cloth, leather and metal.
Doryphoros depicts a spear bearer while Augustus depicts a Roman emperor. The content of the Doryphoros is still not determined while Augustus is possibly a statue openly displayed in honour of the leader. In this light, Augustus is clearly based from a historical figure while Doryphoros is possibly an idealized figure which origin or identity remains a mystery up until now. The Augustus did not only present anatomical perfection but also the detailing of inanimate objects such as his cape. The content of Augustus evokes power and authority. It should no doubt have been a political force in the past, asserting leadership and rule through the statue. Its value today is largely historical as it is able to portray a ruler in the past and in the execution of an order. It gives a perspective on how society had then been structured and organized as well as what role the Emperor played. The Doryphoros is possibly at best, religious in content as it holds a spear. It may be a cult or ritually inspired figure. The Doryphoros, as the idealized Greek physique, may be a reflection of the Greek self while Augustus is clearly a reflection on a specific person (and somehow giving him divine traits).
Assignment Type: Individual Project Deliverable Length: 3-6 Paragraphs
Points Possible: 50 Due Date: 4/1/2006
Visit the following websites and explore the collections of Ancient Art there:
1)Demedji and Hennutsen
The statue is a work of Egyptian art. The form is Limestone, with 83 centimeters of height, 48 centimeters of weight. This particular smooth statue is specifically of Demedji and Hennutsen circa 2465-26 B.C.E. during the Easly Dynasty and Old Kingdom, the subject matter of the art. Demedji with broad shoulders is seated on the left, with a brick that contains inscriptions. Hennutsen stands at his right, much smaller than her husband. Proportion is apparent in both of these statues except that Hennutsen's hands seem much longer and her right side seems slanted. They share almost the same expression on their faces. The inscriptions suggest that Demedji is an Overseer of the "regions of foreign bowen" as well as the Overseer of the "king's foretresses amogn other military functions. Hennutsen in the meantime was seen as a priestess. The purpose or content of such statue is a dedication from the couple's son. The husband-wife pair is noticably not belonging to the royal entourage. The statue claerly presents privileging over the man as he is seated while the woman is merely standing. It reveals the patriarchal structure of the society especially with the woman's size significantly smaller than the man. This will be consistent in other Egyptian art. The statues are true to the human form despite lacking precise details (which in turn seem to emphasize the faces).
2) Unknown Grave Stele
The second art is a grave stele, the work of Greek art. The form is marble created circa 360 B.C. Like the Demedji and Hennutsen, this Greek stele features a family, this time with a child and a disembodied head. Immediately, one will notice the similarities in the Egyptian statue as the man or father is seated, thus privileged in his position, while the woman stands. This time though, the woman is realistically proportioned with respect to the man. The person significantly smaller than the two is the child, which appears like a small miniature. While the parents faced the left side, the child is facing the viewer. The woman is also behind the man when in the Egyptian art, the woman is right besides the man. The statue of Demedji and Hennutsen featured inscriptions which the Greek stele failed to have (thus the anonymity of this stele). The disembodied head is perceivably female and possibly a dead daughter to whom the stele is dedicated. It is also possible however that the stele is dedicated to the girl's family who might have perished by some circumstances. The expressions of Demedji and Hennutsen are calm and even serene. The expressions of the Greek stele evoke a sense of sadness and solemnity. Clearly, the sadness is felt by the whole family and this sadness unites them.
These two Ancient art portray the ancient depiction of the family and the husband-wife in the Egyptian and Greek civilizations. These works of art suggests how family and gender were structured in the past and are thus very integral in supplying the history of these civilizations. These works of art also portrayed unity in such social constructions. Their partnership and bond are concretized by stone.
Assignment Type: Discussion Board Deliverable Length: 2-4 Paragraphs
Compare a work of art from each artist, citing SPECIFIC techniques that each artist used to convey meaning. For example: composition, color, perspective, chiaroscuro, idealism, sfumato, gesture, size, symbolism, allegory.
Michelangelo Buonarroti is known for his dignified works. His works always display that sense of strength and power. His David, one of his foremost works, emanates from the terribilita technique which Michelangelo is known to masterly display. His preoccupation is solely on the human figure while Leonardo Da Vinci also thought to add background for his artworks that featured human figures. Michelangelo seem to operate under the notion that the artist is the hand of God or the divine and the body of the artist is his soul concretized. terribilita is the strength and power displayed in the massive body, proportions and bulging muscles. His expression similarly exudes ferocity with the narrowed eyebrows, and firm lips. His whole facial structure reveals the serious determination. The statue represents the Biblical character, King David, in his youth when he is about to fight Goliath. His gesture, holding the stone, reveals his preparation for battle.
While Michelangelo is fired by Divine interpretation, Leonardo is fired by the scientific calculations. Michelangelo sees a connection between the soul (spiritual), body and the creator while Leonardo focuses on the biological structure of the human being. Unlike Michelangelo, Leonardo focuses on sensibilities and smoothness. His women are subtle, graceful in their expression and mannerisms while Michelangelo similarly presents women with muscles giving them an attribute of strength and power. Leonardo is so close to femininity that his Mona Lisa has captivated the world. Another painting, the Lady with an Ermine, revealed Leonardo's expertise in contrasting light and colours The Mona Lisa depicted Lisa Gherardini the wife of Francesco del Giocondo. The Lady with the Ermine displays grace, elegance and purity well symbolized by the animal itself (which is known to evade any dirt). She is posed to project rigidity and calmness, with the hand gesturing to brush the ermine's fur.
Both Michelangelo and Leonardo portray craft and communication in different ways and inspirations. Michelangelo's motive is spiritual while Leonardo, biological. Nonetheless they have their unique styles that are able to express the uniqueness of their views, Michelangelo with his terribilita and Leonardo with his chiaroscuro. Both techniques fits the sensibilities and styles of the artists as Michelangelo emphasizes on the body as displaying the soul's fierceness while Leonardo focuses on the drama of the human being through chiaroscuro.
Assignment Type: Group Project Deliverable Length: 1-2 pages
1) Leonardo da Vinci, The Adoration of the Magi, 1481-82, yellow ochre and brown ink on wood panel, 8 x 8 feet (246 x 243 cm), Uffizi, Florence. (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/vinci/magi.jpg)
2) Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi) (Italian, Florentine, 1444/45-1510), The Adoration of the Magi, 1470-75, tempera on panel, 111 x 134 cm, Uffizi, Florence. (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/botticelli/adoration.jpg)
3) Andrea Mantegna (Italian, 1495-1505), Adoration of the Magi, distemper on linen, stretcher size: 21 1/2 x 27 3/8 inches (54.6 x 69.2 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA. (http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=900)
Discuss those three works on the small group discussion board. Using the vocabulary you are learning from the text when evaluating art, compare and contrast the works including materials used, style, meaning, symbolism, and any other aesthetic issues concerning the art you have chosen. Explain how the works of art fit into the context of the time period. Again, this is a comparative essay, not a book report.
The Adoration of the Magi is written in the Bible, Matthew 2:1-12 wherein Mary, Joseph and the Baby Jesus were visited by three individuals known to be kings or magi. These individuals paid their respects to Jesus. In the Renaissance era, the Adoration of the Magi among other Christian inspired events had been the favourite subject of artists. As such several artists have attempted to give the event their own interpretation, each artpiece presenting a unique perspective after another.
One artist is Leonardo da Vinci, who painted the Adoration of the Magi in 1481-82 with yellow ochre and brown ink on wood panel. It is 8 x 8 feet. The painting reveals Mary and Baby Jesus with a group of men surrounding her. Unlike the Biblical passage though, Joseph is not present. Even the Star of Bethlehem was also absent. Unlike the other more colourful depictions of the Adoration, Da Vinci's version relied on chiaroscuro or the contrast of light and colours. The illustration appears unfinished though so many details may have been missed out.
What garnered significant attention is the tree that stood out among the people surrounding Mary and the child. It is also noticeable that these people seem to be weakened and frail around Mary and Jesus.
In Sandro Botticelli's Adoration of the Magi version which is a work of tempera on panel (and 110 x 130 cm big), all believers are looking towards Mary and the child Jesus rather seemingly veering away from how it appears in Leonard da Vinci's version. It is as though people are more willing to welcome the child than the Da Vinci version, which may actually suggest a fear or a rejection of Christianity.
Botticelli clearly has more vibrant colours with Mary wearing her typical red and blue garb that the Da Vinci version did not carry. Mary and Jesus are also inside a temple-like structure rather in the midle of a grove underneath a tree. One can clearly see Joseph and the star right on the middle. The people appear to be mostly standing than sprawled on the ground.
It is interesting to point out that Botticelli has a huge series of Adorations. This is only one of many and this particular one was commissioned for the Medicis. This is why we can see the Medicis acting as the magi from their faces. There is a hierarchy too with Mary on top and the spectators on the sides, forming a triangle.
The most close up Adoration is by Andrea Mantagna where we see Mary and the infant Jesus (a miniature it seems) up close with the magi offering gifts. Joseph is behind Mary.
We also see the gifts to the infant Jesus up close emphasizing his role as king. The magi are also noticeably different in races and may in fact come from the three main races of the world. They also range in youth which goes to show how the magi represents and stands for the world welcoming Jesus. The oldest magi is knelt down, head having no such covering or crown whatsoever as to pay homage to Christ the King.
Unit 4 - From the Baroque Period through the Romantic Age
Assignment Type: Individual Project Deliverable Length: 2-3 pages
Points Possible: 100 Due Date: 4/15/2006
From your text book, choose three works of art with a similar theme and from the same time period. Art works are to be chosen from the Baroque Period through the Postmodern Era (dated 1600 to 2005). Do not use art work that you have used in a previous assignment.
This project is broken down into two parts. In this unit you will work on the first two bullet points, which are highlighted in bold below. The final version will include all four bullet points and is due at the end of the Unit 5.
A description of the works including the style.
A summary of the artists' personal philosophies of art (if they can be found in published sources), the prevailing trends and schools of thought in the art world at the time and in the place the artist was working. For instance, what was going on in the artists’ city, country, church, that the artist or the people around him/her may have been reacting to. Any other information that might help the reader understand why the artists made the choices they did and where they were “coming from.”
Submit the draft of the first two bullet points.
Assignment Type: Discussion Board Deliverable Length: 3-5 Paragraphs
Points Possible: 75 Due Date: 4/15/2006
Social, political, or economic conditions can alter the nature and meaning of art.
Neoclassicism is a rigid form of art inspired by Ancient Greece and Rome. These epitomize logic, order and rationality. This is known to be a response to the flamboyant, emotional and flaunting artistic styles such as the Rococo and Baroque. Neoclassical art followed during the 17-18th century's reknowned interest on the Classics. The classics evokes, "visions of restraint, harmony, and stability" (Pelles 1963, p. 17). Neoclassicism is a nostalgic attempt to return to this past. Neoclassicism is said to employ "illusionistic realism" (Josephson 1996, p.30)
Neoclassicism was a time of reflection and an increasing concern for beauty. It wanted to bring back the values such that the Renaissance had promoted. For art to be good, it must firstly be beautiful which can be presented not in the volatile flamboyant display of emotion but by the careful articulation of a subject (epitomized by the Greek ideals). A fine example of a Neoclassicism artist is David who skillfully imitated and mirrored the Greek figure and influence in his works such as the Death of Socrates. Neoclassicism's conception of beauty is largely due to Social, economic and political factors. Socially, it was in an age where people must conform to strict orders, customs and traditions. Neoclassicism thrived within the Age of Reason and Enlightenment. This was during the French and American Revolutions which only echo chaos and turmoil. This made the artists yearn for order and became nostalgic on the Greek adn Romans past. Thus, Neoclassicism is truly Social, economic and politically motivated.
Romanticism would dispute Neoclassicism with its "wavy outlines, diagonals, many accents of color, and dispersed lights and shadows" (Pelles 1963, p. 12). Clearly, Romantic art is in all accounts, a rebel as it goes against the horizontal and vertical order and the restricted limitation of colours. It would combine the artistic styles Neoclassicism had gone against, which are Rococo and Baroque. Romantic Art would inspire drama, tubulence, and the outpouring of emotions. Romantic Art came about from the rejection of the Social, Economic, Political ideals of neoclassicism. It is aptly a glorification of the rebel against what they saw to be a hypocrite society and a society that does not recognize the individual than the society. This art is exemplified by Delacroix paintings of sprawled naked bodies and depictions of war and ship storms.
Josephson, S.G. (1996) From Idolatry to Advertising: Visual Art and Contemporary Culture. New York: Sharpe.
Pelles, G. (1963) Art, Artists and Society: Origins of a Modern Dilemma. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Unit 5 - From Realism through the Postmodern Era
Research a contemporary artist from the Art 21 PBS website at:http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/index.html.
Puerto Rican artist, Pepon Osorio's known expertise is on installations. Through these juxtapositions he presents his opinions on social criticism in some manners comedic. Osorio has rallied for the cause of Latin popular culture and the construction of Latin identities (while attacking American imperialist culture). Indeed, his mixed-media pieces speak of recognizing the Latin culture with particular focus on popular culture as a valid artistic inspiration. He would then add video among his installation work on the same topic. Osorio attacks the dominant cultural groups that had been dictating museum spaces and visibility.
One of his known pieces is the Scene of the Crime. This is a mixed media installation including video, furniture and objects that would make him known in the mainstream art scene. Featured in the 1993 Whitney Biennial, the Scene of the Crime (Whose Crime?) presents a red room with the body of a woman who may have been killed by her husband. The body is a mannequin facing the ground surrounded by the police yellow tape. One cannot approach the body and can only take a look at the household objects such as photographs, memorabilia, statue of saints and trophies which are only remnants of the body lying down. (132 x 420 x 144 inches.)
The piece may be a scene of the crime in the literal sense, or in the context of Osorio's works, the murder of a cultural body (or the Latino body). The house or the scene in itself is very much Latin in presentation. The video installation is apparently a reaction against the presentation of Latin culture in Hollywood movies as Latin culture is presented to be corrupted, violent, sex-starved and largely, dominated of criminals. Latin culture has been heavily stereotyped and this affects how Latinos live and behave. The stereotype (inspired largely by the impoverish U.S. Latin community) has been so ever-present, Latinos are beginning to believe the films are right. Another is that Latinos are not presented as being progressive anymore.
The art piece is a social inquiry than being art for art's sake. Osorio wanted to inspire change in body and spirit asides from the social. It is disconcerting for traditionalists and in this manner, it challenges the tradition and conventions of art as limited to specific media such as painting and sculpture.
Picture of the piece: http://www.pbs.org/art21/slideshow/artists/o/osorio-inst-006.jpg
Assignment Type: Individual Project 2 Deliverable Length: 1-2 Pages
Points Possible: 50 Due Date: 4/22/2006
Cite two reasons why Jackson Pollock's Convergence (p. 510, Figure 734), is a work of "fine art" as opposed to an arbitrary composition of paint.
The debate on whether Jackson Pollack's Convergence is art becomes even more difficult because art critics cannot even agree on a specific definition of what "Fine art" is. Some critics would choose to define Fine Art as a high art while others would broaden definitions by saying that this is aesthetic expression. If the High art definition is to be used then it would inspire the notion of strict conventions in the European sense. Pollack's Convergence automatically does not become qualified as it does not follow the conventions of traditional high Western art as known. However if one is to choose the aesthetic expression definition and focus on how art is supposed to communicate a thought or a sentiment, then the painting might very well do just that. Most definitions agree though in one key term "aesthetics" which is supposed to convey the idea of beauty. Again, the debate in mind should be that "Convergence" hardly inspires anything beautiful as it is nothing but a splatter of different kinds of paints on the canvass. In fact, if it should suggest something it should be chaotic mess. Again, the argument remains that beauty is relevant or so to say "in the eye of the beholder". The human being is so unique in taste and opinion that it is not surprising for some to actually appreciate and feel the artist's sentiment in this chaos. In fact a viewer may find beauty in chaos rather in order.
The argument is not to say that Convergence is fine art per se. This would be as good as saying Convergence is not fine art. Rather, the argument is that one should not stay entirely in one side. Art after all is a matter of opinion and is produced by differing tastes. Truth is not absolute but rather relevant. If Beauty is truth and truth, beauty then beauty too is relevant. Whether Convergence is Fine Art will always be a disputed issue because critics can never agree with one another based on their standards. What should remain constant though is the fact that one should never limit the opinion of art in strictly one side. Rather, critics must be open to the discourse and open to the possibility that Convergence may just be Fine Art. If one is to base from other definitions of Fine Arts, then Convergence has evidence and bases of being Fine Art. It is a possibility.
Assignment Type: Individual Project Deliverable Length: 1200-1500 Words
Points Possible: 225 Due Date: 4/22/2006
1200-1500 words (with 2-3 pages)
This week you are adding the last two bullet points, which are highlighted in bold below, to the paper you started in Unit 4. Make any changes applicable to the unit 4 IP portion and submit your final essay.
You will turn in a final version of the 1200-1500 word critical essay about the three works, addressing all 4 bullet points. The goals of a critical essay are to evaluate and analyze the art works based on research, using the vocabulary and concepts you have learned. Your attitude should be detached. The "critical" aspect of the essay refers to this detached attitude, not whether you react positively or negatively to the works. Your essay must include the following points:
An explanation of how the works fit into the context of the time period.
Compare the three works in terms of form, content, and subject matter. Using the terminology and concepts that you have learned in the course, explain the similarities and differences in the styles of the works and the context in which they were made. Compare and contrast their aesthetic qualities and symbolic significance, as well as the artists’ points of view. Your personal point of view that you have developed throughout the paper will be summarized here. As with the preceding three sections, you will write in your own words, supported by research.
You should quote the sources internally in your paper, include a reference page at the end of the paper, and attach copies of the 3 works of art at the end of the paper.