Levels of Prevention in Community Nursing
Category : Community Nursing
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The three levels of prevention in the community settings are; primary prevention, secondary prevention and tertiary prevention. With these three levels of prevention it helps the individual, the people and the community to attain better and good health. First the primary prevention, which focus mainly on health education, health promotion primary. This activity is concerned in preventing the specific illness or disease. The U.S. Preventative Services Task Forces’ Guide to Clinical Preventive Services (2d edition, 1996), give on the definition of primary prevention as to prevent the individuals in the onset of a targeted condition. Examples of primary prevention we have , giving active and passive immunization, teaching the client, body weight, maintaining the diet.
Primary prevention is the most cost effective form of health care. Its target is the community as a whole. Second, we have the secondary prevention, in which the activity is focus in treating the disease, promoting early detection and screening. It also called as the health maintenance phase. The U.S. Preventative Services Task Forces’ Guide to Clinical Preventive Services (2d edition, 1996), they describe secondary prevention as those persons who have already develop risk factors, it identifies and treat asymptomatic patient or those who have preclinical disease but the condition is not clinically apparent. Focusing on early case finding, screening is one of the examples of secondary prevention, other examples are breast self exam, newborn screening and genetic counseling. Its target is that population who are at risk. Secondary prevention reduce the severity of diseases, decrease the duration of illness, through early diagnosis thus it may give a prompt intervention. Through case finding, it also have an impact in minimizing the sufferings of the people, thus maximize well being. Lastly, the tertiary prevention that deals in rehabilitating phase, leading towards recovery. It refers to prevention initiatives, as with this level of prevention, it made to restore to highest function, to have an optimal reconstitution, thus have a support adaptation to risk.
How might primary intervention be addressed in a community experiencing increasing level of family violence?
Our awareness in our community about violence doesn’t seem to enhance our ability to work on methodical screening and prevention. Even though medical professionals seems not to conduct such search or screening in the family practice, but there were some that which questioning about the relationship of the family is being question, like home visits. Observation is one tool to assess the relationship of the family but this cannot guarantee that this way we could easily detect. Some providers or researcher may seems to find it difficult to screen out, because there were also some barriers to screening, we have time, skills, resources, comfort and fear on the part of clinicians. In some case clinicians also have contribute to the lack of screening. There were some health care teams who are not dedicated to their work and find them to work on other field, still other clinicians , a group of small who are dedicated to help the families who have problems in terms of violence, abusing and etc. In this primary prevention, this is important to address knowing the activity of this prevention is to avoid and stop any occurrence that might develop. Home visit programs, in which we can assess the family, the child and the mothers relationship, but as I said earlier that this is not tool to evaluate easily. In the school, we can also assess, and do interventions to know and determine violent behaviors, because teachers knows status of their pupil, absentees, bruises and others which a teacher may also can have answer on that. Aside from that, having from school based program , we can detect and implement some counseling program. This is to decrease the adolescent behavioral problems. It is hard to detect this kind of problem, as clinician may find it difficult, so as with the nurse, and other, it needs merely, great investigation also in this part.
By making the community improve, healthy and well being, primary prevention should be always implemented. As primary prevention is taking an action in which it builds resilience, thus preventing a situation or problem before they arrive or occur. Primary prevention is also essential in the efforts to ameliorate family violence. The primary prevention is important but it doesn’t just lies in the suffering in which can be avoided, however sufficient treatment resources can be allocated because it is unlikely, though to match the magnitude of the problem. In a community setting, in order to avoid occurrence of family violence, we have what we called health teaching to the community, counseling, educating the people and with therapeutic efforts. Not just as a nurse we evaluate the disease or other health condition but speaking with prevention, we are focusing and helping the people, giving primary prevention to the community as a whole. The role of a nurse has a great part in providing the health teaching, as a nurse we are not just educator but as well as a counselor, a leader. As this level of prevention, it is a public health term, in which focusing on prevention against violence is one of the purposes in this. Thus it builds long-term solutions. As a health provider we must first think why is this happening, or why is that people are facing with that problem? There are risk factors which can be individual, or environmental. Knowing first its causes and roots helps the provider to answer those question and that may implement health teaching and do counseling to the community, especially the family. For prevention approaches, focusing on protective factors that build on the positives, than seeking simply to fix the negatives.
Explain why a comprehensive health program should address all three levels of prevention.
Dealing with health, it is necessary to apply all these three levels of prevention. The health program provides this level of prevention to help the individual, family and community to attain good health, free from any diseases. Not just the department of health can get benefit on it program but as well as the people, the individual, family and community. Uniting each other and helping to be free from any disease. In any health settings, hospitals, clinics, health centers and even in the home, these three levels of prevention is greatly addressed. With this three levels of prevention, were talking about, health maintenance, health promotion, health education then by early detection and screening we greatly reduce the number of diseases. Having accomplished the two levels then restoring the health. In health program the three levels of prevention should merely addressed as because it cannot be avoided, it is part of their assessment. Their activities are mostly on the levels of prevention it is their duty and responsibility to do health teaching, giving immunization, do screening and mostly covered in all activities of levels of prevention. Primary prevention it’s aimed is no high risk people. Getting avoided on no high risk people.
The department of health used this primary prevention because it is least costly and eventually it is effective. On the secondary prevention, as the health program addressed the levels of prevention because it search and look for a change, a change in which it could bring to a behavior to avoid some ill and sickness occur. This covered on the people who are affected, individuals, families and community. Although it is difficult to accomplish, but it is more costly. Then the tertiary prevention same as secondary it seeks to behavior but it is focused on to treat the ill effects which mainly caused by the behavior of the individual. This prevention focus also in the individual who is at risk and who develop ill effects. The provider and the practitioner find it difficult to achieve success but more costly, as these both change the behavior thus treating illness.
Is addressing a health concern at this level of prevention cost effective? Explain.
For me, it would be cost effective to be addressed the health concern on the three levels of prevention because with this, we might bale to assess one’s needs and problem, and by that we could also determine other factors that contribute to the problem. In any setting, this levels of prevention is always present, it cannot be avoided or just neglected by the health care providers, because this three preventions is important tool for them to help the individual, family and community and as well as for their own purpose, so that they may easily recognize and could implement a help to the client. This three prevention is very important. This three levels of prevention is very cost effective , first the primary prevention, it is cost effective because your preventing any disease or illness that might occur or develop, could one afford not to have this , if ever he/she neglect this like having immunization he will take the risk, and he could have develop a lot of diseases to manifest, thus leading to problem that way may secondary prevention be implemented or applied. So as caring for your own health, why take this level of prevention, if you’re really care for your health then an individual must do and have this. Although the secondary and tertiary is difficult to achieve its success but it is more costly.
Adler, L.L & Denmark, F.L. (1995). Violence and the Prevention of Violence.
Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT
Kubisch, A.C. et al. (1998), ‘Evaluating community initiatives: a progress report’
in K. Full bright-Anderson, A.C. Kubisch & J.P. Connell (eds), New
Approaches to Evaluating Community Initiatives: Volume 2: Theory,
Measurement, and Analysis, Roundtable on Comprehensive Commuity
Initiatives for Children and Families, The Aspen Institute, Washington DC
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services (2d edition) Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
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