Paper Critique Sample
The relationship between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment of academics
Job satisfaction is the state of both the mind and feelings of an individual with regards to the work they are currently in. Job satisfaction can be influenced by various factors such as the relationship of the individual to its colleagues and supervisor, the quality of the working environment, the level of fulfilment with the work, or even the relationship of the individual to its family members can influence the satisfaction in the workplace. Organizational commitment on the other hand, is the psychological attachment of an individual to the organisation wherein he or she works, a member or an affiliate. In the sector of academics, the interest in research on job satisfaction has been done a number of times, however the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has not been studied.
This paper examines the paper "The relationship between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment of academics." After examination of the paper, a critique will be given regarding the paper using The Critiquing Framework by Bray and Ree (1995).
Critique of the Article
The title of the paper is "The relationship between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment of academics" by Munnever Olcum Cetin. The title itself of the research paper already gives the summary and overview of the whole study. It attracts the interest of the readers on the association of job satisfaction in the organizational and occupational commitment in the sector of academics.
The study has been created in order to determine if there is a considerable difference between the satisfaction in the job, occupational commitment and organizational commitment of academics, which is associated with the gender, marital status, age, experience, and title variance. Another goal of the research is to find out whether there is a relationship among job satisfaction, occupational commitment and organizational commitment. The study employed the following tests, the t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson's Moments Multiple Correlation. The results have revealed that there is a positive relationship between the affective and normative commitments that is related to occupational and organizational commitment.
Terms of Reference
The objectives of Cetin are to find out the job satisfaction in academics and occupational and organizational commitments and also to determine if there is a correlation between those three mentioned above and the variables such as sex, marital status, age, experience and title in the job, moreover this paper is aimed to find out if there is an association among job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitments.
In the study conducted by Cetin, the researcher used the quantitative method in measuring the relationship among job satisfaction, organizational commitment and occupational commitment in academics, as well as the variables such as marital status, age, gender etc.
The individuals that constitute the range of this study are the academics that are currently working in the Educational facilities of the state universities in Istanbul. Educational statistics of the academic year 2003-2004 have revealed that there were 478 lecturers in state universities in the whole of Istanbul that is working in the 4 educational facilities. A random sampling was conducted in order to choose the 132 academicians to form the sample group, which is 51.5% that participated are women, 48.5% were men, 59.8% married, 40.2% were single. And according to the ages of the sample 44.7% were between the ages of 20-30, 38.6% were between the ages of 31-40 and 16.7% were over the age of 41. Among the participants 6.1% were professors, 6.8% were associate professors, 23.5% were assistant professors and 63.3=6% were teaching assistant. And regarding the length of their teaching experience, 47.7% of the participants had 1-5 years of teaching experience, 12.1% had 6-10 years, 22% had 11-15 years and 9.1% had 16-20 years and also 9.1% had 21 years or more experience in the teaching profession.
The employment of the author of the method of random sampling in order to obtain the sample is the right choice because it reduced or even eliminated the bias in the study because all of the samples have equal chances of getting picked or chosen by the author.
In this study the researcher used three scales. The scales are for job satisfaction, occupational commitment and the organizational commitment.
Personal Information Data Form: this form is used in order to identify the academicians demographic variables such as gender and marital status.
Job Satisfaction Questionnaire: the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was used in order to identify the job satisfaction of the sample.
Occupational Commitment Scale: It measures the occupational commitment in three sub-dimensions which are the reliability of affective commitment to the occupation, continuance commitment to the occupation, normative commitment to the occupation.
Organisational Commitment Scale: In which test organizational commitment under the three sub-dimensions.
For the data analysis the author employed the T-test to test if there is a significant difference between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment related to the variables of gender and marital status. One-way ANOVA to test the significant difference between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment related to the variables of age, job experience and title. The Scheffe and LSD tests are used to find out the source of the difference and the Pearson Moment Correlation were used to determine the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational commitment and organizational commitment.
The author has used tables to present the statistical data of the research. Tables for the result of the factor analysis on the organizational and occupational commitment were presented, as well as the independent t-tests for the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational and organizational commitment and the variables. In addition the results for the ANOVA tests and Pearson Moment Correlation were also presented in the form of tables.
The study has determined that there is no difference between the job satisfaction, organizational and occupational commitment levels according to gender. And just like gender there is also no difference between the three and the marital status. In addition, the age variable has also no significant difference in job satisfaction, continuance and normative commitment to the organization, however, the study determined significant differences in the affective, continuance and normative commitment to the occupational levels. Just like the age variable, the title also does not have a significant difference between job satisfaction, continuance and normative commitment to the organization, but there were significant differences in terms of continuance and normative commitment to the occupational levels. And in the experience in teaching, just like the variables of age and title, it also has shown no significant difference in continuance and normative commitment to the organization, but has shown difference in continuance and normative commitment to the occupational levels.
Conclusion and Recommendation
In the study it has shown that there are correlations between marital status, age, experience, title of the academics and some of the levels of commitment on the organizational and occupational aspects. But, there is no relationship determined between job satisfaction and the variables. The correlation analysis has revealed that there is a strong relationship to the affective and normative commitment.