Theater Industry: Comparative Study of the Marketing Strategies Used in China and the United Kingdom
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Theater Industry: Comparative Study of the Marketing Strategies Used in China and the United Kingdom
1.1 Background of the Study
Since time immemorial, man has already been fascinated with the field of arts, which includes music, theater, dance, painting, and cinema. This can be observed and accounted for through the development of music since the ancient times up to the contemporary period. From the moment humans were able to organize themselves into social groups and be able to function as one, they have already used their own form of music as part of their ritual and practices. Its development has also taken many forms, as “civilization” start to take place in urban places in different countries, thus, encouraging and developing the skills and talents of whom we call the music geniuses at present, such as Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, Strauss, and many others. This continued on to the next separate periods, giving rise to the many musical talents in different countries, including the development of different music genres, which can now be recognized and enumerated during our time. From this course of development, it can be perceived that the humans, since the beginning of time have already been fascinated with music and all its attributes. Thus, music is said to be there to be enjoyed, and listening to music is a skill that is acquired through experience and learning. Therefore, the enjoyment of music is enhanced through knowledge (Copland 2002).
It has been reported that the history of music is one division of the general history of human culture, more specifically of the history of the fine arts as special incarnation and instruments of that specific culture. Its field is extensive, including all ascertainable facts about musical efforts wherever found, from the earliest times to the present, and ranging from the childish attempts of the savage to the monumental achievements of the greatest civilized artists or musicians (Pratt 2004). It can be traced back to the type of music among the nations of remote antiquity, including China, Japan, India, Egyptians, Africans, and the Western Asiatics, to the music of the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, to the music during the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance and the Reformation period, to the Golden Age of the Catholic Church, to the birth of the opera and symphony, to the beginning of romanticism, and up to the development of music in the Americas (Gantvoort 2005).
The further development of the music industry led not only to the birth of the different music genres we know today, but to the development and flourishing of the theatre industry. In its broad definition, theater is said to be an institution of social life that promotes artistic activity, thus, separating it from other forms of arts, with its institutional and social nature (Hubner 1992). It has existed since the dawn of man being a result of human tendency for story telling. Since its foundation, the theatre has come to take on many kinds, often making use of aspects such as dance, speech, music, gesture, and spectacle. Thus, it is observed to be a combination of other forms of performing arts and the visual arts in order to produce a single artistic form. Similar to music, theater also has a variety of genres, including comedy, Black comedy, domestic drama, melodrama, farce, musical theatre, pantomime, opera, rock opera, physical theatre, and tragedy, which are among the most commonly performed (‘Theater’ 2007).
Like the history of music, the history of the theatre industry can be traced back in the earliest civilizations of man. Before the popularity of Aristophanes, Aeschylus, and Sophocles in the Greek Era, dramatics and folk theatre have already been existing and practiced in the early civilizations of India. Such forms of theater can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic peoples in India, wherein the folk theater was mixed with dance, food, ritualism, in addition to the events of the daily life. The early forms of theatre features acting as animals such as goats, buffaloes, reindeer, monkeys, and other wild animals. Some actors also take the role of hunters, acting to chase the wild animals. In addition, stage design, costumes, makeup, and various movements and gestures have also been used in this time to depict real life experiences. Such forms of theatrical arts have also been presented in the Chinese, Japanese, and other Southeast Asian countries including Thailand, Indonesia, and Cambodia. Such forms of theatrical arts have been influenced by the Vedics during that time, and enhanced in those countries using their own style and culture. Thus, theatre took on various forms such as puppet shows, clowning, acrobatics, singing, dancing, and pantomime. Along with the flourishing of the Eastern form of theatre is the Western theatre, which has presented the greatest influence in the field of the performing arts. The Western form of theatre was founded by the Greeks, having the oldest surviving plays. The development of the modern theatre evolved from staged religious choral performances during religious celebrations. The highlights of the Greek theatre include the use of masks, the flourishing of playwrights, and the ampitheatre, which is the structure still used today in theatrical and musical presentations. Further prospering of the theatre industry can be observed in the Medieval Era, depicting different forms of dramas that have emerged from the Greek and Roman period. The Medieval Era is from where the most famous playwright, William Shakespeare has lived, with his works recognized up to the present era. The theatre industry continued to develop to the Renaissance and Neoclassical Era, which paved way to the high regard for operas, melodramas, and satires. At the late modern era, other forms or genres of theatre have been recognized, including experimental theatre, realism, naturalism, surrealism, expressionism, and postmodernism (‘History of Theatre’ 2007). Apparently, the progress of the theatre industry can be recognized alongside the advancement of other forms of applied arts, such as music, painting, sculpting, and many other forms.
The history of the music and theatre in the United Kingdom can be traced back in the Middle Ages or the Medieval Era. When during the course of the 5th century Britain was first colonized by Germanic peoples in appreciable numbers, they brought with them a long-standing tradition of sung narrative poetry. Although similar traditions no doubt already belonged to the Celtic peoples whom they eventually supplanted in most parts of Britain, and to the Scandinavians who invaded and settled in large numbers from the end of the 8th century, it was the context of the Anglo-Saxon language and culture that the genre first made a noticeable impact on the artistic life of the country. The great monument of this tradition is Beowulf, a poem of over 3,000 lines and the oldest epic in any Germanic language. The main interest of Beowulf in musical history is as a source for the social context of singing and harping in heroic terms (Caldwell 2002). Because this era is the era from which Catholicism flourished, the Roman Catholic Church made popular the chants and standardized both the Mass and the chant, and termed it the Gregorian chant. From the Medieval Ages, transition of the development of the music industry turned to the Renaissance period, which features musical innovation. It has been emphasized that the Renaissance period came late to England, but musical innovation there was already ahead of continental Europe. During the Renaissance Era in England, polyphony became increasingly elaborate. Many English composers, such as John Dunstaple, Guillaume Dufay, and Leonel Power (‘Medieval Music’ 2007).
On the other hand, Chinese music is said to be the body of vocal and instrumental music composed and played by the Chinese people. Unlike the Western view of music, the Chinese conceived music in the highest sense as a means of calming the passions and of dispelling unrest and lust, being influenced and dominated by the teachings of Confucius for several thousands of years. In addition, music for the ancient Chinese is meant not amuse its listeners but to purify one’s thoughts. Traditionally, the Chinese believed that sound or music influences the harmony of the universe. Apparently, each new emperor of each new dynasty has a duty to establish his dynasty’s true standard of pitch, which serves to be one of his most essential duties during his rule. The result of this philosophical orientation was the opposition of the Chinese for the use of music as a means of entertainment, and the classification of musical entertainers to an extremely low social status. The most prominent expressive features of the Chinese music is its melody and tone color, which greatly emphasizes the proper articulation and inflection of each musical tone. Chinese music is mostly based on the five-tone or the pentatonic scale, which was much used in Chinese older music. The seven-tone or the heptatonic scale is also used, which is an expansion of the pentatonic tone, and is often come upon in Northern Chinese folk music. Chinese musical instruments used can be classified depending on the type of materials comprising them, including stone, bamboo, metal, wood, clay, silk, gourd, and skin. Instruments used include long zithers, flutes, panpipes, the sheng or mouth organ, and percussion instruments such as clappers, gongs, and drums. Similar to the Western history of music, the Chinese music history also has its Dark and Golden Ages. The Dark Ages of the Chinese music history happened in the Qin dynasty, wherein music was condemned as a wasteful pastime, thus, leading to the destruction of musical books and manuscripts and musical instruments. Its Golden Ages happened in the Han dynasty, when a special bureau of music was instituted to manage ceremonial music (‘Music History of China’ 2007). From this, the growth of orchestras, opera, and other genres of Chinese music have been observed, leading to the progress of the Chinese theatre. The early beginnings of the Chinese theater started as a combination of singing with dance, gesture, posture, and costume, in a way that gave considerable scope for mimetic art, and thus, is associated with shamanism. Chinese shamans similarly impressed their audiences in a dramatic manner. As dances became more solemn and formal, professional court establishments were developed to provide for their performance, thus, giving birth to court entertainers. They have dual functions, one is to amuse by music, song, mime, and wit, and the other is to give advice, instruction, or warning (Mackerras 1988). Thus, in this sense, the function and role of music and theater is intertwined together, which cannot only be used as a form or means of entertainment, but also as a source of knowledge and information.
It has been reported that both the Chinese music and theatre industry started to flourish since the success of its economic innovation, which started in the Tang dynasty. During the Tan period, thriving commerce and more settled times were perhaps conducive to the growth of the theatre industry, where the first unquestionable signs of widespread playacting were observed, and some of which may have been a direct part-ancestor of the drama. Dance was in some cases intimately connected with Tang playacting, and a number of dances in the nature of musical sketches, using flute, clappers, and drums for their musical instruments prospered during the dynasty (Mackerras 1988). Thus, in this regard, the Tang dynasty is termed as “The Age of 1000 Entertainments”, as it is from where the different theatrical forms flourished and become successful, including shadow puppetry, comedic performance, acrobatics, and music (‘Chinese Theatre’ 2007).
From the difference between the two histories of the music and theatre industry of China and the United Kingdom, it can be perceived that both countries used different marketing strategies in order to make their genres and forms of music and theatre known. This is because marketing strategies would enable a certain merchandise, good, or service to be known to its target consumers. Theoretically, it can be recognized that music and theatre can be a form of a marketing strategy in itself and not a good. It can also be regarded as a good means or tool of a marketing strategy. However, due to the advancement and evolution of the current marketing and business strategies in the contemporary period, it can be perceived that any product or service can now be introduced in the market, including music and theatre. Thus, the music and the theatre industry can now be sold in the market “like pancakes”. The discussion of the history of music and theatre in both countries would be essential to know the development of the overall history of the society, economy, politics and environment of the country, which would be crucial in determining the importance and the extent of the power and potential of marketing strategies in China and the United Kingdom in relation to the music and theatre industry.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study aims to discuss and analyze the similarities and differences of the marketing strategies used in the theater industry of both China and the United Kingdom. Such a problem would be important to answer in order to add to the knowledge of the individuals concerned with the theatre industry in both countries. Those individuals would include the actors, production crew and staff, advertising, media, and marketing staff, and the audiences of the theater industry. Such individuals would be able to benefit from this study because through this comparative study, they would be able to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of their marketing strategies, thus, would be able to improve them for the benefit of their careers and business.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
The specific research objectives for this study can be summarized as follows:
1) To find out why theater marketing strategies are important to both China and the United Kingdom;
2) To determine the current theater marketing strategies in China and in the United Kingdom;
3) To determine the advantages and disadvantages of current theater marketing strategies used in China and the United Kingdom; and
4) To recommend effective marketing strategies for both countries, in response to recognized problems or disadvantages
1.4 Structure of the Study
This research study is divided into five chapters in order to provide ease and consistency in the discussion of the topic. The first chapter discusses the problem uncovered by the researcher, including the background of the problem. It constitutes the introduction, the statement of the problem, aims and objectives, and the structure of the whole study.
The second chapter discusses the review of the related literatures for the topic of the research. It provides relevant studies and facts on the different culture impact in the music and theater industry, consumer behavior, government policies, and the economic and tourism impact of the music and theater industry to both China and the United Kingdom.
The third chapter of this research study discusses the methods and procedures used in the study. This chapter comprises of the presentation of the utilized techniques for data collection and research methodology. Similarly, it contains a discussion on the used techniques in data analysis as well as the tools used in acquiring the needed data.
The fourth chapter of this research study discusses the analysis of the collected and tabulated data. Computations and correlations are made in order to uncover relationships and to address the statement of the problem noted in the first chapter. It analyzes and discusses the meanings of the findings and its implications for the literature and the study as a whole.
Lastly, the fifth chapter comprises of two sections, namely, the conclusions of the study and the recommendations. These two portions highlight the implications of the findings in relation to the data obtained. The conclusions and the recommendations provide suggestions from both the findings and the discussed literature for future research.
This chapter discusses the research methods available for the study and its applicability. It presents how much the research has implemented and how it came up with pertinent findings. This chapter presents the various procedures and strategies in identifying the sources for the needed information in knowing the relative preferences of the chosen respondents for the study. It specifies the research design followed, the process of data gathering, and the data analysis method used.
Three kinds of research methods, namely, correlational, experimental, and descriptive can be used in doing a specific research study. The correlational type of research method is used in relation to ethical and practical problems through experiments. It refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through using correlational statistics (r). The square of a correlation coefficient produces the explained variance (r-squared). A correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, thus, it must be put in mind that correlation does not necessarily provide a cause-and-effect situation.
Another type of research method is the experimental method, which is the only method that can be used to establish cause-and-effect relationships (Creswell 1994). That is, the experimental method is the only one that can be used to explain the bases of behavior and mental processes. In this method, the subjects are split into two or more groups, where one group is called the experimental group and gets the treatment that the researcher believes will cause something to happen. This treatment is formally called the independent variable. The experimental and control groups are compared on some variable that is presumed to reflect the effects of the treatment or outcome. This is formally referred to as the dependent variable.
The third approach in doing a research study is the descriptive approach, which uses observations and surveys. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. It could also suggest unanticipated hypotheses. Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, because this study is based in qualitative and quantitative methods, this research study utilizes this type of research method.
3.2 Primary Data Research: Royal Shakespeare Company
In order to determine the marketing strategies used by the theater industry in the United Kingdom, one of its famous theater companies has been considered as this study’s point of reference. The famous theater company considered for this study is the British theatre company, Royal Shakespeare Company or the RSC. The Royal Shakespeare Company is one of the world’s best known theatre ensembles (‘About the RSC’ 2007), located primarily at Stratford-upon-Avon, with bases in London and Newcastle. It is one of the two most prominent publicly-subsidized funded theatre companies in the United Kingdom, along with London’s Royal National Theatre (‘Royal Shakespeare Company’ 2007). It focuses on works by Shakespeare, other renaissance dramatists and contemporary writers, thus, striving to engage more people with the experience of live theater through its productions, education, and outreach work. The nature of RSC’s ensemble allows the audiences and the actors alike to follow a number of repertoire productions while providing an expert training environment for its actors, directors, and theatre artists. It is then dedicated to attract and inspire the best artists, both on stage and behind the scenes, in order to produce the highest standard of performances. In addition, being an ensemble company, the collaboration of the directors, actors, writers to production, administrative, technical, and workshop staffs yields a distinctive and unique approach to theater. It currently employs 700 people, who work either directly on producing and running the productions or within roles that directly support the work that takes place on stage (‘About the RSC 2007). From such descriptions, it can be perceived that the Royal Shakespeare Company serves to be an influential and high-class theater icon that strengthens the theater industry of the United Kingdom. It does only provide world-class entertainment to all its audiences, but also presents an environment that allows the growth of its actors and production staff in terms of their theater career. Thus, in this sense, this theater was considered in this research study for obtaining relevant data, as it is already an institution in the theater industry of the United Kingdom. Moreover, because it is deemed as one of the world’s most famous theatre, the Royal Shakespeare Company would already have its own established and recognized marketing strategies, including cooperation or collaboration with other large companies and corporations. In addition, being famous, the production staffs and actors working in the company would be high-class and excellent professionals having reliable and trusted experiences.
3.2.1 Quantitative Primary Data Collection Methods
As specified earlier, this study uses the descriptive approach, which involves gathering information about the present existing condition, in which the purpose is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena (Creswell 1994). Because this paper uses the descriptive research method, it is based on both qualitative and quantitative method.
The quantitative method is compatible with the study because it allows the research problem to be conducted in a very specific and set terms (Cooper and Schindler 1998). Besides, the quantitative research plainly and distinctively specifies both the independent and the dependent variables under investigation. It resolutely follows the original set of research goals in order to arrive at more objective conclusions and testing hypothesis, thus, enabling to determine the issues of causality and eliminating or minimizing subjectivity of judgment (Kealey and Protheroe 1996). In addition, this method also allows for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of research objects (Matveev 2002). Thus, it provides achieving high levels of reliability of gathered data due to, namely, controlled observations, laboratory experiments, mass surveys, or other forms of research manipulations. This study is based on surveys and statistical treatments, therefore, the quantitative approach suits well with it.
In order to gather first hand information, the researcher needed respondents, which are composed of the different staffs from the Royal Shakespeare Company. Respondents include staffs comprising the different departments of the Board, administrative, technical, writing, executive management, and directing team of the theater. The research considered 30 respondents, but was only able to consider 25 participants, who had the time to participate in the study. They are also the individuals responsible for the different concepts and strategies for marketing their company and presentation to their audiences. The questionnaire-survey has been used to collect data on the respondents’ demographic profile, to check if the sample is appropriately stratified and representative, and to provide further information for the analysis of the sample.
A simple random sampling was used in this research study to make the study more convenient, thus, allowing for more comprehensive data analysis (Parel et al 1978). Considering the entire population or members of the Royal Shakespeare Company would not be feasible for this study, as not all members are responsible and are not involved in coming up with the theater’s marketing strategies. In this sense, the members of the different teams mentioned previously were considered, as they would definitely have the say on the theater’s marketing strategies. In addition, in simple random sampling, such members have the same chance of being selected for participating in the study (Parel et al 1978), thus, making it easier for the researcher to analyze and gather data.
The researcher designed a questionnaire for the purpose of the interview process. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to examine the preferences of the theater Board, directors, executive management team, writers, and administrative and technical staffs on their marketing strategies. This research uses a mixture of closed and open questions. A closed question is one that has pre-coded answers. Through closed questions, the researcher will be able to limit responses that are within the scope of this study. In addition, closed questions will be used in the survey because the answers are easy to analyze and are straightforward as target respondents are mostly busy that they do not have enough time to give attention to open questions. Closed response questions save the respondent having to think of possible replies.
The questionnaire consisted of mainly three parts. The first part was a set of categorical questions to identify a respondent’s personal data and information, which corresponds to the demographic data the study will be needing, including the age, occupation, status, and gender. The second part of the questionnaire includes a number of questions to measure the attitudes, preferences, and factors that may affect the choice of marketing strategies of the respondents, if any. A 5-point Likert Scale was used in this part to measure each construct. The third part of the questionnaire included questions for the purpose of respondent clarification, which have a number of open-ended questions for the basis of interview.
In the Likert technique, a set of attitude statements are presented, where subjects of a study are asked to express agreement or disagreement using a five-point scale. The degree of agreement is given a numerical value ranging from one to five, thus a total numerical value can be calculated from all the responses (Underwood 2004). A 5-point scale with end points like “strongly agree”, “strongly disagree”, “agree”, “disagree”, and “uncertain” was used to measure the items. On the scale, number 1 indicates the strongly positive response and number 5 indicates the opposite extreme.
The equivalent weights for the answers will be:
5 Strongly Disagree
1 Strongly Agree
The researcher opted to use the questionnaire as a tool since it is easy to construct having the rules and principles of construction are easy to follow. Moreover, copies of the questionnaire could reach a considerable number of respondents either by mail or by personal distribution. Generally, responses to a questionnaire are objectified and standardized and these make tabulation easy.
3.2.2 Qualitative Primary Data Collection Methods
Along with the quantitative research method, this research study also employs a qualitative research method, since this research study intends to find and build theories that would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research. These qualitative elements does not have standard measures, rather they are behavior, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs. Furthermore, in definition, the qualitative research method is a multi-method, involving an interpretative, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Accordingly, qualitative researchers deploy a wide range of interconnected methods, hoping always to get a better fix on the subject matter at hand. In this sense, it permits a flexible and iterative approach.
The value of qualitative research can best be understood by examining its characteristics. One of the primary advantages of qualitative research is that it is more open to the adjusting and refining of research ideas as an inquiry proceeds. In addition, the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the research setting, as in an experimental study, but rather seeks to understand naturally occurring phenomena in their naturally occurring states.
Using the qualitative research method, the interview of the respondents was facilitated. The researcher tallies, scores, and tabulates all the responses in the provided interview questions. The interview used is a structured interview. It is consisted of a list of specific questions and the interviewer does not deviate from the list or inject any extra remarks into the interview process. A structure interview is a kind of interview that promotes a question and answer process. Although the research can put or add further questions regarding the subject matter, the interviewer must see to it that the process should remain objective rather than subjective, and that the researcher does not have any right to state his or her own opinions and ideas so as not to influence the answers or comments of the interviewee. The interviewer may encourage the interviewee to clarify vague statements or to further elaborate on brief comments. The interviewer does not share his or her own beliefs and opinions. The structured interview is mostly a “question and answer” session.
Validation of the Instrument
A combination of the closed-type and open-type questions were used in this research study. Closed-type questions were used for efficient and easy tabulation of the gathered data, while the open-type questions were used to provide the respondents of the study a chance to express their personal views based on the questions asked. Hence, the data gathered in using both types of questions will be relevant to the discussion of the subject matter.
For validation purposes, the researcher pre-tested a sample of the set survey questionnaires. This was done by conducting an initial survey to at least five respondents from the chosen respondents of the population. After the respondents answered, the researcher then asked them to cite the parts of the questionnaire that needs improvement. The researcher even asked for suggestions and corrections from the respondents to ensure that the survey-questionnaire is effective. Automatically, these five respondents were not included as respondents for the study.
3.3 Secondary Data Collection: China Theater Industry
In order to come up with substantial conclusions and recommendations for this research study, secondary data collection has been done in order to support the primary research data obtained by the researcher. As pointed out, the primary source of data comes from the survey-questionnaire and interviews conducted by the researcher to selected respondents. In support of such data gathered, the research would also be using secondary data from printed sources, such as academic and professional journal articles, books, magazines, and some reliable sources from the Internet to have a strong foundation of the whole research study.
In order to make a comparative analysis and study of the marketing strategies used in the theater industry of both countries, a point of reference must also be used in the theater industry in China. Similar to the United Kingdom, a pioneer theater would also be considered in China. This theater is Beijing People’s Art Theatre or the BPAT, which was founded in 1952, and enjoys a distinguished worldwide reputation, with more than 12,500 performances of 250 plays over half a century. It is the first Chinese drama company to tour internationally, and makes its Cal Performances debut with an undisputed masterpiece of world theater – Lao She’s The Teahouse (‘Beijing People’s Art Theater, The Teahouse’ 2007). As a national theatre company of China, BPAT possesses its unique performing style. Ever since it founding, the theatre has put on nearly 300 plays in different styles, including domestic works in different styles and works from different countries. It now has three theatres mainly for drama performances, namely, the Capital Theatre, the Mini Theatre, and the Experimental Theatre. Its stage art center has a professional producing base, which could make settings, costumes and props for the theatre itself and other performing troupes (‘Beijing People’s Art Theatre’ 2005). Aside from the BPAT, a number of theatres can also be recognized in China, with a number of theatrical structures, serving to influence the country’s theatre industry. Other theatres include the National Theatre Company of China, the Chung Ying Theatre Company, the Hong Kong 105 Drama Society, the South Island Theatre Company, the Theatre du Pif, and the Theatre Fanatico.
3.3.1 Quantitative Research Method
To be able to obtain a balanced view and data in this study, a number of questionnaire-surveys were also sent to some of the members of the BPAT in order to obtain their answers regarding the problem stated in the first chapter of this research study. The questionnaire-surveys were sent to the members of the BPAT through electronic mail. Similar to the questionnaire-survey provided for the members of the Royal Shakespeare Company in the United Kingdom, the questionnaire-surveys sent to the members of the BPAT also used closed and open type of question. However, for ethical reasons, the instructions and questions in the questionnaire-survey were translated into the Chinese language for the convenience of the members of BPAT who do not know the English language very well.
3.3.2 Qualitative Research Method
For the verification of the answers in the questionnaire-survey, some crucial members of the BPAT were scheduled for an interview through telephone call. The crucial members of the BPAT who were interviewed through the phone call were the members who know how to speak the English language. Thus, the number of members interviewed to clarify their answers was significantly lower than the number of members interviewed from the Royal Shakespeare Company.
Statistical Treatment of the Data
After the collection of the entire survey questionnaires, analysis and collation of such data must be done next. With this, the researcher will be using statistical tools and methods to analyze all the data, and will be assisted by the SPSS in coming up with the statistical analysis for this study. The researcher will be assisted by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences or SPSS in coming up with the statistical analysis for this study. SPSS is one of the most widely available and powerful statistical software packages that cover a broad range of statistical procedures. It allows a researcher to summarize data, determine whether there are significant differences between groups, examine relationships among variables, and graph results (e.g. bar charts, line graphs) (Kirkpatrick and Feeney 2003).
The discussion of the history of the music and theatre industry stands for a piece of a puzzle in the larger picture and view of this research study. This is because the overall history of the music and theatre industry serves as the foundation of all music and theatre industry of different nations around the world. In addition, the overall and general history of the music and theatre industry would enable one to further understand the individual development of the history of any country around the world. This is because the forms of arts that flourished in a particular country depend upon the type of culture, values, society, and practices that it has. As such, understanding the development of the Western music and theatre industry would be crucial in determining and analyzing the music and theatre industry in the United Kingdom, while understanding the development of the Eastern music and theatre industry would be essential in determining and analyzing the music and theatre industry in China.
National Theatre Company of China or the NTCC, which is the state performing arts organization of the People’s Republic of China. It was founded and established on December 25, 2001, merging the former China National Youth Theatre and China Central Experimental Modern Drama Theatre. NTCC is the state level artistic performing troupe under the Ministry of Culture in China (‘Profiles’ 2007; ‘National Theatre Company of China’ 2003a). It has been reported that with a great number of excellent drama talents on stage and in the film and television industry, the theater carries on its time-honored traditions, explores new techniques, and continues to create top-quality dramas (‘National Theatre Company of China’ 2003b). The company is also entitled to present both Chinese and foreign dramas of excellence by exploring both classical and experimental forms of theatrical arts. In this regard, this theater company offers a platform where tradition meets modernity and state-of-the-art performance is pursued to nurture theatrical masterpieces (‘Profiles’ 2007).
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