Employee turnover in relation to specific human resource management practices
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The way trade and commerce is conducted nowadays has evolved. Everything involving the operations of the organisation demands a more expeditious means of addressing issues and changes in the external environment. Though this apparently would drive weak companies into the verge of exiting the market, the good ones find a way for this intense demand for constant improvement to their advantage. There are some who find a way to make these incessant demands for change trigger the developmental needs of the company. This is especially true in the case of the hospitality industry. In this industry, the focus is more on the service rendered to the public; hence there is a distinct possibility for it to be indistinguishable and interchangeable. Though the external environment has been regarded by numerous organisational studies to be one of the key elements for organisational success, this end could not be achieved without initially having a strong and stable internal environment. This study will focus on that element of the organisation, particularly of Shangri-la Hotels and Resorts. Specifically, the study shall take into consideration the issue of employee turnover in relation to specific human resource management practices provided by these organisations in the hospitality industry. For this chapter, the subsequent parts shall give further details about the intention of this paper. Specifically, the chapter shall provide for the background of the topic, the actual aims and objectives of the organisation, the plan for the study, its rationale, significance to the existing literature, and its scope and limitations.
II. Background of the Topic
The internal environment provides the foundation on which an organisation establishes a firm base so as the demands of the external environment does not lead it away from its ultimate goals. In the past and existing literature, there are a couple of models on which the internal environment is managed. These two prevailing models include personnel management and human resource management. These models are often used interchangeably and espouse confusion to those unfamiliar with the differences. Personnel management is essentially the more seasoned model than human resource management which imposes key administrative processes in the common organisation. ( 1990, ) The issue on the use of this model is that its potential could only be maximised when the organisation imposes a strict bureaucratic model. 2001)
On the other hand, the emergence of human resource management basically uses the same principles as that of personnel management. However, the scope has been broadened to cover elements not limited to the administrative functions of the organisation. These key elements, in relation to human resource management, are now compounded with the consideration of motivation and morale of the employees. ( 1995, 237) Hence, this addition have made the process more agreeable to the processes of the private sector as the model has veered away from the accepted notion that the people in the organisation are mere elements of the administration.
A. Aims and Objectives
Human resource management has become one of the more important models of management applied in the modern organisation. In this study, a closer look on the labour turnover in the hospitality industry shall be made. Specifically, the conditions surrounding Shangri-La shall be the basis of the discussions in the ensuing chapters. This study intends to establish the relationship of the effective implementation of human resource management and employee turnover in the hospitality industry. In order to carry out this study, the researcher shall carry out the following objectives.
· What is the existing employment structure in Shangri-La?
· How does Shangri-La practice its human resource management functions?
· How do the employees regard the company’s performance in terms of:
o Training and Development
o Working Conditions
o Organisation and Productivity
o Empowerment and Employee Involvement
o Management and Supervision
· How does Shangri-la sustain a level of retention of the well-performing staff in the organisation?
What is the relationship of
labour turnover and the implementation of human resource management practices of
III. Plan for the Study
The paper shall carry out both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the possible causes of labour turnover in Shangri-la Hotels. To be more specific, the analysis of the practice of human resource management initiatives of the respondent company shall be made to determine whether or not it has a direct effect on the overall retention and turnover of personnel.
The dissertation shall be divided into several chapters. This will ensure that the discussions are clear and consistent with the distinct areas covered by each chapter. For the purposes of this dissertation, the discussions shall be divided into five Chapters. This first chapter basically forms part of the introductory elements of this paper. It offers a discussion on what the dissertation intends to tackle and what organisational issue it seeks to resolve. An introduction to the general problem of turnover in the hospitality industry, a background of the current environment of the said industry and the rationale why and how this general problem needs to be addressed shall be indicated in this chapter. Hence, the first chapter shall build the foundation on which the subsequent chapters will relate.
The second chapter shall provide for the review of related literature pertaining to employee retention, labour turnover and human resource management. On a more specific note, the discussions shall fall squarely on how the existing literature points to the concepts and issues mentioned in the aims and objectives of this paper. Moreover, this chapter will also provide some description of past studies that shows similarities with the intended ends of this paper. These discussions will then be used to relate to the actual findings of this study.
The third part of the paper shall cover the methods and procedures used in this paper. Simply, the discussions on this chapter shall cover the models used in the data acquisition processes in the paper. Statistical tools as well as other concerns which the researcher encountered during the course of the study shall be taken into account. This is to provide a transparent account on how the data is acquired and that the data used in the analysis are credible.
The fourth chapter shall present, interpret and analyse the data acquired from the respondent company. In this part of the study, tables and charts shall be used to summarise the findings made by the research process. Specifically, the processed data from the quantitative research shall be discussed and related to the objectives of the paper. In addition to that, the discussions shall also relate the findings on the existing theories pointed out in the earlier literature review.
The last chapter shall be giving out the summary, conclusions and recommendations based on the findings of presented in the preceding chapter. In doing so, this chapter will succinctly specify the implications of the study on the overall field of organisation and human resource management. The recommendations given in this chapter shall cover the observations and arguments made throughout the dissertation.
IV. Rationale of the Study
Organisational studies have emphasised time and again of the importance of offsetting the demands of the external environment with the internal environment of the organisation. This harmony provides for the overall success of the organisation. The very manifestation of this stated harmony is seen in the flexibility of the company in dealing with the demands of their operations. This is especially true for the hospitality industry as they tend to operate in a much wider scale compared to other fields. ( 2006,) The management and supervision of the environment is thus a given prerequisite.
As stated in the earlier parts of this chapter, the internal environment serves as foundation for the company in dealing with the nuances of the external environment. However, this can only be done if the organisation holds on to a competent set of workers and employees dedicated to the realisation of organisational goals. (and 2004, The problem with this requirement is that this rarely takes place. Companies, after training their employees to meet the standards that they require, do not stay too long in the organisation as they seek other opportunities elsewhere. Studies have also pointed out that employee turnover tends to increase the costs incurred by the company and at the same time opens it up for significant losses. This is compounded by the fact that turnover of employees has the propensity to be driven by personal decisions of the individual employees. Studies have pointed to this phenomenon as voluntary turnover. Acts like resignation and retirement are among those that signify voluntary turnover. (2004, ) Hence, retention is deemed as an indispensable ends on which the company has to achieve.
A. Significance of the Study
In the past decades, the study on human resource management has become one of the most contested and debated topics. Scholarly journals and academic articles have assailed every nature of the model. In the same manner, a good number has been made for the purpose of analysing the importance of retention and the effects of turnover. This dissertation would be a welcome addition to this existing literature. In addition, the analyses and findings of this dissertation will fill in the rather scant studies on the effects of turnover and the importance of retention in the hospitality industry.
In this regard, it is important to mention that the study will be focusing on a particular hotel in China. Hence, the setting of the study will also establish the existing conditions surrounding the hospitality industry in China. It will also be able to provide a succinct description of the nuances on which may help multinational companies seeking entry on the said market. Furthermore, this study will also be helpful for academics seeking to pursue further studies on the matter. This may trigger an impetus to further improve the knowledge of the existing environment and the industry on which the respondent company operates. To this end, the study will beneficial to a number of sectors in society. The implications of the findings are not limited to organisational studies alone. It affords an advantage to the actual trade and industry as well as in the academe.
B. Scope and Limitations
The discussions in the succeeding chapters shall limit itself on the rationale and the stated aims and objectives on this chapter. Subsequently, the data acquired from the primary and secondary sources shall be treated with the utmost ethical standard to ensure that the discussions are all original. In the same manner, all the other claims adapted from previous studies are to be cited while the data acquired from the respondents shall go though a process free from the personal biases of the researcher. All these are done so as the discussions and the contents of this dissertation will not fall under scrutiny and claims of preconception and even unethical manoeuvrings. On the whole, the findings of this dissertation are intended to be treated with the utmost objectivity devoid of any subjective claims coming from this researcher.
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