Historical and Contemporary Landmarks of Social Welfare Provision
Category : Social Policy
Health and Social Care
Task 1 Historical and Contemporary Landmarks of Social Welfare Provision
A social welfare provision is considered pertains on any program o the government that also seeks to provide a minimum level o income, service or other support for the disadvantaged people like the poor, elderly, disabled students, unpaid workers like mothers and other caregivers and minority groups ( 2008).
States or nations that offer a broad social welfare programs are frequently recognized as having a welfare state ( 2008). The phrase ‘welfare state’ was first used by during the late 1930s in order to distinguish the difference between the policies of the democracies and war state of the dictators of Europe ( 2009). Political system under the said state, government, rather than the individual or the private sector has the liability for the welfare of its citizen, at the same time providing a guaranteed minimum standard of life, together with the insurance against the hazards of poverty, illness as well as social deprivation. Welfare services comprises of social security, which makes different provisions against disruption of earnings due to sickness, injury, old age or even unemployment. They take the forms of unemployment and sickness benefits, family allowances as well as income supplements that is being provided and financed through the insurance schemes of the government ( 2009).
Elements of a welfare system began to be constructed in the parts of Western Europe during late 19th century. German takes the lead during 1883, with its compulsory national accident and sickness insurance law that was introduced by and was financed by a state subsidy. In 1898, the New Zealand introduced pensions while Austria-Hungary in late 19th century, Norway in 1909, Sweden in 1910 and Italy, UK and Russia in 1911 introduced their national health insurance. In1935, the US followed by introducing the Social Security Act of 1935due to different political and social pressures, together with the extensions of voting rights. In early 1940s with the UK taking the lead, a comprehensive welfare state, which covers all its elements and available to all was established ( 2009).
Evolution of Health and Social Care Policies in the UK
1945 – 1979
During the war, the government was committed to full employment through the Keynesian Policies, free universal secondary education, and the introduction of secondary allowance. In 1942, the Beveridge Report proposed a system of National insurance that was based on the three assumptions: family allowances, a national health service and full employment and it became as a major propaganda weapon, with both the major parties committed to its introduction . The British social policy was dominated by the Poor Laws that was first passed during 1598 and continued till 1948 or lasted in one form or another for about 350 years. The said abolition was due to the fact that the Poor Laws were much hated, thus much of the social services during the 20th century, which include the national insurance were framed in order to avoid having to rely on them
In 1945, the Labour Government was elected and introduced three vital acts which are:
the 1946 National Insurance Act that implemented the Beveridge scheme for the social security;
the National Health Service Act 1946; and
the 1948 National Assistance Act, which abolished the Poor Law, while making the provision for the welfare service
All of the said Acts were timed to come into force on June 7, 1948. In addition, the Children Departments was founded in 1948, under the 1948 Children Act, which states that the local government receives the children in care in any case of abuse or neglect will be the duty or responsibility of the local authority
The Family Allowances Act 1945 ensured that the dependent children under 15 years of age, those aged 15 – 18 and still in education and older non-working children over 15 were provided by Family Allowance and Child Tax Allowance. In addition, the National Health Service Act 1948 provided people in Britain with free diagnosis and treatment of illness, at home or in hospital. Furthermore the National Assistance Act created a financial safety net for those who are in total poverty, because they are not covered by the National Insurance Scheme ( 2008).
The National Insurance Act in 1946 provide a comprehensive system of unemployment, sickness, maternity and pension benefits funded the by employers and employees, together with the government . The legislation instituted a comprehensive state health service, effective from July 5, 1948. People in work, except married women, paid 4s 11d per week in National Insurance contributions. For the average employee, it will amount to about 5% of their income. The said provision, was considered as the best and cheapest insurance policy ever offered to the British people, of any people anywhere
Another important aspect to be considered regarding the social and health welfare in the UK is the social citizenship model. The issues regarding the social citizenship model was not that really challenge in the anticipation of the emergence of the as the Conservative Party leader in 1975 and the Prime Minister in 1979. promised low taxes, less state intervention, as well as lower levels of public spending. This involved, in the theory at least, vital cuts in the welfare spending. The succession of governments between 1979 and 1990 became synonymous with the idea regarding the rolling back the state
1979 To the Present Day