The necessities, and the pros and cons of the Construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge.
The Necessities and the Pros and Cons of the Construction of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB)
The modern age of digital technology as well as the rapid culture of globalisation triggered the arrival of new concepts and ideas in construction industry. In fact, there has been an increasingly sophisticated and state of the art emergence of construction tools. The traditional mechanisms that are commonly used in most construction endeavours are now replaced by highly technologically driven systems. From simple boutique firms to multi-storey and massive construction firms, most companies are now in the process of implementing organised programs in an effort to promote sustainable development through the use of the key principles. Also, the concept of sustainable construction came into existence.
Today, buildings are continuously becoming very complex and have to meet tight budgets, deadlines and desired quality. For each single construction project, there is a need for different stakeholders constituting several designers and consultants, government approving agencies, utility providers, contractors, specialised subcontractors and designers, subcontractors, manufacturers, suppliers, tradesmen, etc. to identify the requirements, advantages as well as disadvantages, and other factors affecting the whole project. With this, the assessment of the overall condition of the project and its implementation will serve as the main blueprint that will guide the stakeholders towards the successful realisation of identified goals. By having complete research and development (R&D) efforts, every participant of the project will predict future problems, devise potential solutions, produce alternatives, and avoid risks that could deter the deliberate goals and/or affect the whole project implementation.
This research paper aims to provide relevant information regarding the necessities, the pros and cons of construction the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB). Specifically, the discussion involves the application of available reference materials and publicly accessed documents. All information in this report are based from factual records and integrated to the opinions of the author.
BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
According to the Hong Kong Highways Department (2006), the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) is a gargantuan and collaborative proposed project of three regions namely Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), Zhuhai City of Guangdong Province, and Macao Special Administrative Region. It is a large sea crossing that is characterised by a series of bridges and tunnels which connect the said regions. In particular, HZMB will link the west side of Hong Kong with Macao and the neighbouring Zhuhai City located on the west side of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and part of the southern industrial powerhouse of mainland China. Figures states that the entire HZMB is a 35-kilometre dual 3-lane carriage comprising the 29-kilometre (18 miles) Zhujiang Section from the landing point at Gongbei of Zhuhai and A Pérola of Macao to the boundary of the HKSAR, and the 6-kilometre Hong Kong Section (HKS) from the boundary of HKSAR to the landing point at San Shek Wan of Lantau Island (Hong Kong Highways Department 2006).
HONG KONG-ZHUHAI-MACAO BRIDGE
Accordingly, the aims of the project are: to functions as the link in meeting the demand of passenger and freight land transport among Hong Kong, the Mainland (particularly the region of Pearl River West) and Macao, to establish a new land transport link between the east and west coasts of the Pearl River, and to enhance the economic and sustainable development in the three places. The HZMB project also includes construction of boundary crossing facilities and necessary link roads and associated civil, structural, electrical and mechanical, marine, geotechnical, water mains, fire services, environmental mitigation measure, street lighting, traffic aids, directional signs, traffic control surveillance system, landscape and drainage works. In terms of financial allocation, the HZMB is an expected investment of around some 31.5 billion Yuan or approximately 2 to 3.8 billion US Dollars.
Referring to the colossal bridge project is incomplete without interconnecting the name or participation of Gordon Wu. Wu is the chairman of Hong Kong-listed Hopewell Holdings Limited who advocated the project for almost two decades (2004). In his vision, Wu dreams of creating a world-class transport system for China’s manufacturing powerhouse in the Pearl River Delta. Such vision is compared to the map of Manhattan Island and environs including the Hudson River, the George Washington Bridge that spans it, John F. Kennedy Airport, the seaports in neighbouring New Jersey. The mentioned extensive transportation network carried the output of the American industrial machine and made New York the world's premier city. Similarly, (2004) reported Wu’s belief that the HZMB is expected to be the perfect place to catch the burgeoning China trade, just as New York was ideally situated during America's Industrial Revolution.
The preparation of the HZMB construction involved extensive feasibility study and research and development (R&D) measures. There have been divergent stakeholders that were included in the overall planning of the project. Among these organisations and committees is the HZMB Advance Work Coordination Group that was established in 2003. With the involvement of various authorities from the three regions, the group work in an office in Guangzhou and appointed a design institute in the mainland. This institute was required to perform feasibility study that includes a report on landing points for the said bridge. The identified landing points are studied further due to some significant related factors like economic effectiveness and environmental issues. Moreover, there are other previously conducted intensive studies particularly referring to the subject of hydrology, environment protection, economic benefits, routing, and passenger and freight traffic flow of the bridge.
Although the project is promising, the nature of complexity – both in terms of involving partners from Mainland China and the two SARs, and the various environmental and technical issues relating to the project itself, this project has been making slow progress. But at its meeting on August 4, 2003, the State Council agreed "that the governments of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau should set up a Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Advance Work Coordination Group... and press ahead with the advance work for the construction of the Bridge" ( 2003).
Aside from the aforementioned objectives of the project, there are some other reasons on why this bridge should be constructed. These reasons vary from structural, economic, socio-economic, political, and other relevant paradigms yet everything centres on the concept of development. Specifically, the bridge construction is directed principally to the macro socio-economic developmental benefits for the Greater Pearl River Delta. Other reasons are: to develop the transport system of the whole region, to provide long-term solution to the problem of congestion to the major border crossings connecting Hong Kong and Mainland, and to improve political relationship among various authorities.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS
The HZMB was initially planned as a big leap for the transport system of China. Transportation was generally recognized as a major bottleneck to China's economic growth (1995). The building of roads and bridges similar to this one has led to the formation of network of highways within development zones. Officials strongly believe that such infrastructures have caused a striking advance of economic growth therein. Indeed, economic and developmental manifestations are equally palpable during the recent year. In order to expand and modernize the functions of the current satisfactory transport system, this major initiative is proposed and pushes through. The HZMB is expected to make a considerable improvement to transport links in the western part of the Pearl River Delta by linking into the Beijing-Zhuhai superhighway, as well as expressways already constructed in much of Guangdong. It is believed that the bridge will boost Hong Kong's status as a logistics centre and entrepot for the whole Pearl River Delta region ( 2004). Similarly, this bridge was anticipated to solve the present passive condition of the transport linkage between Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta west that relies mainly in water transport mechanisms such as ferries, ships, and other water vessels.
In the same manner, the proposed 29-kilometre (18-mile) bridge is considered a way of easing congestion at border crossings between Hong Kong and mainland China (2006). It is identified that at present, there are only four major borders crossings linking Hong Kong and Shenzhen namely: the Man Kam To crossing that serves as the straightest entrance to the Shenzhen city centre; the Sha Tau Kok crossing that joins Hong Kong with east Shenzhen; the Lok Ma Chau crossing that provides a connection to west Shenzhen; and lastly, Lo Wu crossing that offers a rail connection between Hong Kong and central Shenzhen for passengers only. There are continuous expansion works being done to the said crossings and are aimed to meet the increasing demands and numbers of passengers especially during peak seasons. Interestingly, Lo Wu crossing is the direct area that suffers the problem of congestion. In order to solve this, a wide variety of proposed projects have been presented. According to Hong Kong and the relevant Mainland officials, the need to open new border crossings is among the most popular and potent suggestions. With this consideration at hand, an agreement for a joint study to be conducted on the transport linkage between Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta was presented at the third meeting of the Mainland/Hong Kong Conference on the Co-ordination of major Infrastructure Projects (or the so-called the Conference). After some series of feasibility studies and researches, the HZMB concept emerged and popularised.
The said project is also expected to enhance the relationship of political leaders of the involved regions. Through the integration of the HZMB project, national and regional officials will have direct communication to discuss the benefits of the project that will also lead to the opening of various opportunities for new business and economic co-operation. In late June 2003, the two signed a free trade pact called Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement or CEPA that states the further opening of China to Hong Kong companies (2004). More importantly, the existing relationship of the regions, its authorities, and people will be reinforced and renewed. The continuity and transformation in the Pearl River Delta is seen to be beneficial to Hong Kong particularly on its hinterland (1995). And this is made possible with the implementation of the project. However, (1995) argued that there is an uncertain future in the socioeconomic centre political periphery towards the 21st century. But with this project, everybody was expecting the full support and co-operation of every Chinese citizen particularly the ones who will be greatly and directly benefited.
Among all reasons, the most emphasized and proven to have the greatest importance is the effect in the economic and socio-economic aspect. A further discussion of this belief is provided in the next faction of the paper.
ELEMENTS OF THE PROJECT
Public Works professionals face ever-increasing requirements as well as ever-greater demands for skills in developing and managing neighbouring infrastructure-improvement projects. Apparently, in starting a massive construction project like the HZMB, there are a lot of things to be considered. Aside from the introductory series of feasibility studies and research and development (R&D) efforts, the following elements are deemed to be the most primary necessities of the project.
- Financial Budget Allocation
In pursuit of this project, a similarly huge amount of money is involved. As stated, the HZMB expected to allocate some 31.5 billion Yuan or approximately 2 to 3.8 billion US Dollars. Up to date, bidding was open for potential conglomerates. Hopewell Holdings hopes to take a 50 percent stake of the project. For the record, they raised a total amount of HK$3.01 billion, which is equivalent to US$ 368 million ( 2004). This amount is from an initial public offering and its shares are hoped to surge if the project is finally confirmed.
The funding arrangements of the said project are being studied. In 2005, HK environment, transport and works secretary Dr. declared in a meeting that the bridge's advanced work co-ordination group intends to seek private sector participation in funding and operating the bridge ( 2005). The preparations to invite expressions of interest are under way. The intention is to test the interest and gauge views from the market on possible arrangements. On the other hand, financial allocation can come up from the three directly involved regions. The government authorities are capable of allotting a significant amount of their respective budgets or economic revenues; and Hong Kong, in particular is very capable of doing such. However, it is still imperative to recognise the unpredictability of upcoming incidents. The financial budget of the bridge must be flexible enough to accommodate risks in implementing expenditures.
- Materials, Equipment and Technology
The massive structures of the HZMB will definitely use technologically guarded materials and equipment. As compared to the earlier development of complex structures, the current state of the construction industry uses several systems that are technology-based. The use of labour is sparingly accompanied by a maximum of mechanization (1996). Apparently, the most sophisticated technical methods and systems in the construction industry are expected to be utilised. Moreover, materials are deemed to be products of intensive scientific and technological inventions. Thus, the HZMB is an emerging work of contemporary engineering technology and art for that matter.
- Stakeholders and Human resources
Stakeholders of this project are the authorities that posses first-hand supervision in the overall planning and implementation. They are the state officials, engineers, architects, project managers, construction firm personnel, and most especially human resources (e.g. employees and workers). As project management moves into the 21st century, project managers face the challenges of operating in project environments characterized by high levels of uncertainty, cross-cultural teams, and global competition for competent human resources (1998). To meet these challenges and to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project, one can develop a clear understanding of human resource management (HRM) skills (2003). Despite the recent information and technology development in project management, people are still at the centre of projects because they determine the success or failure of a project. They also define project goals as they plan, organize, direct, coordinate, and monitor project activities using interpersonal and organizational skills such as communication, delegation, decision-making, and negotiation. In project environments, people can be viewed as problems and constraints or as solutions and opportunities. Thus, effective HRM is a vital component of project management (1998; 2003;. 2004; 2004). Managing projects requires unique skills and techniques; different from those needed to manage ongoing operations. By virtue of broad experience, flexible approach, and a people-oriented leadership style, project managers should be able to cope in the current times.
- Project Management
Project management is such a multifaceted responsibility that it requires people in this area to possess innumerable competencies ranging from personal skills, management proficiencies, technical expertise, and others (2001). With this, the project management competency model (P 2003) concocted and grouped thirteen discrete competencies that a project management requires: leadership, customer relations, project planning, performance measurement, communicating, organizational effectiveness, team building, staff development, perspective, negotiating, risk management, problem solving, and decision making. This model was developed from the observable behaviors of successful, professional project managers in a variety of application areas. It provides a consistent, coherent structure for assessing the capabilities of current and prospective project managers. The principles of this model will contribute greatly to the effective management of the HZMB venture.
The next comprehensive discussion includes variety of advantages of the HZMB construction project. It ranges from economic and socio-economic and political benefits.
ECONOMIC and SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS
As given, the benefits of the HZMB construction vary from economic and socio-economic implications. It is recognized that the bridge project will generate substantial economic benefits ( 2006; 2005; 2004; 2004; 2004). According to a general comment of Transport Advisory Committee (TAC) Chairman Dr. ( 2003),
"Members welcome the Bridge project which will reduce the travelling time from Hong Kong to Macau and Zhuhai to within half an hour. It will also realise the strategic benefits of promoting the socio-economic development of the Pearl River West and reinforcing Hong Kong's status as an international shipping and aviation centre.”
The HZMB project will enable a faster way of exchange of merchandise and generate speedy return of investments particularly to the neighbouring areas. By slashing the travel times between Hong Kong and the western shore, a large portion of less-developed southern China will be able to have access into the global marketplace by using Hong Kong as its crossing point. The flow of labour, goods, and capital between China and the rest of the world will be enhanced through this bridge.
Specifically, the HZMB is seen as important to Hong Kong's future economic development (Sino Daily 2006). Hong Kong, according to Hong Kong Trade Development Council ( 2005), affirms its position as the world’s second highest per capita holding of foreign exchange and Asia’s second source of foreign direct investment (FDI). With the building of this multi-billion project, Hong Kong will have better position in terms of world trade and economic development. Key to this visionary expansion has been the truly historic reconnection of ties between Hong Kong and Guangdong ( 1995). As was the case prior to the Chinese Revolution of 1949, the Pearl River Delta ( ) can now once again refer not only to the geographical delta area but also to Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Macao (1988; 1989). Through the proposed project, the Guangdong is directed to the enhancement of economic and socio-economic development as Hong Kong plays its role in supporting such. For instance, the economic boom in Southern China had been relying to a large extent on export processing, shipping its products south to Hong Kong's highly efficient port ( 1997). Through this project, the business production transactions of Southern China and Hong Kong will definitely increase and expected to achieve promising results.
Generally, the bridge will make Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macau more accessible. This accessibility factor serve as a strong selling point in the tourism industry if used in a degree to which it will make the area more attractive as a whole for tourists. Tourism is becoming an integral part of development planning in developing countries. It is classically regarded as travelling for recreation and also includes any travel outside of one's normal working or living area. In some cases, tourism is viewed as a saviour to stagnant industries and traditional agriculture, creating new inter-sectoral linkages and demands. The tourism industry opens vast prospects for employment and income to diverse population. Governments, business groups and international financing institutions regard tourism as a 'clean' industry compared to manufacturing.
Hong Kong’s identity as one of the most promising and vibrant tourist destination in the world is uncontested. It projects an aura of opulence, efficiency, and high-tech competence (Kwong and Miscevic 2002). Because of its abundance in several attractions, tourists flock their way to experience Hong Kong’s magnificence and top offers. Among these offerings to the various visitors of the country are the rich assortment of food, entertainment, culture and lifestyle. Also, Hong Kong locates in a favourable geographic location in the centre point of Asia Pacific region with a minimum 5-hour fly reaching most of the areas worldwide, with the support of Hong Kong’s hardware, events tourism thrives on this piece of land. Different kinds of events that consist of both commercial, social, cultural, educational in nature are present in this venue (2004; 2003; 2006). According to the survey result (Appendix 1), Hong Kong is receiving great revenue from the business and family travel sectors in recent years. With the perceived influence of the bridge, the existing figures on Hong Kong tourism are expected to increase.
Aside from Hong Kong tourism, the HZMB will also open promising economic opportunities for the local tourism industry of Macao by providing chance of visiting the area using the bridge as the link. Also, the western part of the Pearl River Delta will attract tourists by road or by rail on top of visiting Hong Kong. Another tourism related benefit is that more Macao and Pearl River Delta residents will visit Hong Kong and shop there through the help of the bridge as the linking mechanism. The increasing figure of these inbound visitors will provide an additional booster to the development of the local tourism industry. In addition, the spending of local tourists will boost up the economy as well. In general, the HZMB affects both local and international tourism industry of all regions because of the new multi-destination itineraries that will definitely enhance the tourists’ experiences all throughout the region.
Meanwhile, Hong Kong’s transport system is among the world’s best and highly sophisticated transport service – both in private and public sectors. Comparing it to leading cities in the world, the transport service of the city is relatively efficient and more affordable ( ). In terms of logistics industry, Hong Kong’s reputation coupled with its strong competitive advantages in terms of excellent infrastructure and telecommunications facilities, well-established financial and legal systems, very good international connections and a free market, will be intensified as the bridge will serve as a link to the west side of the Pearl River Delta and connect it as well to the growing network of expressways in China. Serving as the main link, the HZMB will present better transport network that will result to expansion of business and economic dealings in the Pearl River Delta areas. Services will be extended as far as the inland regions of the Mainland.
In general, the economic and socio-economic advantages of the construction of HZMB as discussed above include the following: alleviation of the congestion problem present in border crossings checkpoint; encouragement of more profound profitable integration between the Pearl River Delta Regions; promotion of socio-economic development of the Pearl River West; reinforcement of logistic advantages of Hong Kong; assistance to the development of tourism industry in Pearl River Delta (specifically Macao); increased employment and investments from the private sector; and the creation of the most effective regional transport.
As assured, the said project is a venue for the enhancement of the relationship of political leaders of the involved regions. Through the integration of the HZMB project, Chinese national and regional officials will have direct communication to discuss the benefits of the project. Aside from increased political commitment and co-operation, the potentialities of the HZMB in terms of business lead to the opening of various opportunities for new business and economic co-operation. The existing relationship of the regions, its authorities, and people will be reinforced and renewed through this project.
Although, it is important to acknowledge that since Hong Kong’s founding as a British colony, the process of development has been based on dynamics often at loggerheads with the conditions of its immediate hinterland – Guangdong Province ( 1995). Growth of this British enclave in the post-World War II period had further drawn it away from its nearby Chinese province. However, (1995) declared that a major reversal of the long historical trend has been moving toward an integrated economic development, and each territory is, more than ever before, exploiting and complementing the other in a new partnership forged by market forces.
Meanwhile, in January 2005, Hong Kong chief secretary for administration Donald Tsang has announced the approval of preparatory work for the 30km HZMB after a regular joint working meeting on co-operation between Hong Kong and Guangdong (2005a). Tsang also added that studies are being conducted to continue proving on the feasibility of a Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong express rail link. On the contrary, Lau recognized the possibility of an express rail link but she immediately affirmed that it is not cost-effective ( 2005).
While proposals and plans for this new piece of infrastructure had been discussed for more than a year prior to summer 2003, they were met with a mainly frosty response on the part of the Guangdong government, which believed both that Guangdong province had less to gain from the bridge than Hong Kong, and that its existing pattern of economic development would be adversely affected (2004). These are just some of the drawbacks that are seen in the implementation of the HZMB project. Other disadvantages of the project are discussed below.
On the contrary, the following discussion identifies the potential disadvantages of the construction of the HZMB. It primarily lists major environmental drawbacks and minor economic and socio-economic, and political challenges.
In general, the most number of disadvantages lies on the environmental point of view. According to the World Wildlife Fund Hong Kong, the potential negative impacts of the project on the environment are both physical and natural. In exchange to the promising economic and socio-economic advantages of the HZMD, the environment is at risk due to intense demand of infrastructure development in the region upon the commencement of the construction project (2003; 2004). It is understood that while there are long-term advantageous results in the previously discussed aspects, such results do not consider the situation of the environment. Similar to such long-term positive effects, the construction of the project will also have long-term negative as well as unsustainable and irreversible effects.
Among the possibly affected and recognised environmental dangerous and risky zones are the natural habitats of the three involved regions ranging from water, air and land resources and conditions. The use of machineries and equipment will directly destroy the ecosystem of highly endangered marine resources like the Chinese white (pink) dolphin, which are richly treasured in Hong Kong, rare tree frogs, horseshoe crabs, and other elements of marine diversity (2003). Also, the water quality of the areas affected is considered to be at risk. This will adversely affect the seagrass beds, mangroves, and natural intertidal, brackish marsh, and terrestrial habitats in the marine ecosystem. On air, the construction of the bridge will definitely increase the number of transportations. This will contribute to the worsening of the air quality of the areas mentioned. It will trigger the increase of air-related ailments not only to human beings but also to animals. On the aspect of land, noise pollution is inevitable. The machineries used in the construction process are undeniably contributory to the existing noises from all modes of transportations present in the region. The hassles and bustles of the streets will significantly develop by disrupting the silence using all sources of noise
Aside from ecological implications as mentioned above, other areas of concern in relation to the construction project involve the heritage aspect as seen in the possibility of archaeological interest and potential offshore marine deposits that have not been investigated or adequately studied previously before.
In order to address such pitfalls of the project, consultations on the environmental effects of the bridge construction are extensive. The disagreement of environment advocates in commencing the project is among the primary considerations on why the project is still a mere blueprint. However, ( 2005b) assured that the bridge's impact on the environment will be kept to a minimum.
For instance, in April 2005, an adoption of a northern alignment was recommended. The recommendation states that the landings will be situated at San Shek Wan on Lantau, Gongbei in Zhuhei and A Perola in Macau. According to Director of Highways , the northern alignment will be the most cost-effective among the three alignments proposed (2005b). He added that this will also have the least disturbance to the ecology, as the bridge structure will not touch any land area of Lantau and it will span across the San Shek Wan headland. Also, a new route option that will avoid extensive effects on the environment particularly the water and shoreline includes a bored tunnel traversing the south runway.
THE NEW ROUTE OPTION
Source: SOS 2003
ECONOMIC and SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS
Aside from the environmental potential hazard of the project, there are also observable negative impacts in the economic and socio-economic condition such as direct competition of involved regions, like in the tourism industry. Direct competition among the concerned regions will result to economic revenue issues (2004; 2004). The problems in the increase in business untimely closures as well as bankruptcy among smaller entrepreneurial industries are feasible. There are also perceived adverse effect on the consumer welfare and consumption, employment and labour relations, taxes and inherent regional policies. But then again, these issues are address through series of communal negotiations and policy decision making and taking.
The positive view in the constant development of political commitment and relationship of involved governments was challenged by the possibility of political conflict as to “who gain more and who lose more” mentality, danger of miscommunication, and individual protection of area’s interests. For example, prior to summer of 2003, proposals and plans for this new piece of infrastructure had been discussed. However, these actions met with a mainly cold response on the part of the Guangdong government authorities. The reason behind their lack of interest was supported by their belief that Guangdong province had less to gain from the bridge than Hong Kong, and that its existing pattern of economic development would be adversely affected ( 2004). Thus, this condition may lead to the introduction of conflict between Guangdong and Hong Kong government authorities.
Apart from structural, economic, socio-economic, political, and other relevant paradigms that focuses on the concept of development, the gigantic and ambitious construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is necessary because of the following reasons: to develop the transport system of the whole region, to provide long-term solution to the problem of congestion to the major border crossings connecting Hong Kong and Mainland, and to improve political relationship among various authorities. While it is true that there is a need for such infrastructure, the project entails significant benefits as well drawbacks that served as current controversial subject of debates and argumentations among authorities and citizens. Among the given benefits include macro economic and socio-economic improvement among the regions concerned. On the other hand, drawbacks are mainly focused on the environmental and natural resources and some on economic and socio-economic and political aspect as well.
Indeed, the HZMB is deliberately directed to the development of China and its specific regions. It is a very big endeavour that requires multi-billion dollar financial allocations, extensive participation of stakeholders and human resources, highly sophisticated materials, equipment and technologies, and other project management essentials as well as related factors. This project is a potential starting point of the next emerging conditions in China and also the world. Thus, there is a need for the participants of this construction project to spend a lot of more comprehensive research studies and supplementary actions that will review, analyse, evaluate and develop the existing facts at hand and related information about the whole project. Similarly, the focus on the consideration of the welfare of majority is also important. The immediate effects do not matter but it is the end-results. It is always imperative to consider that development is not harmful. It is indeed inevitable. But above all, development is also the full responsibility of every society and to sustain developmental efforts and balance it with the people’s right to life.
Visitor Profile Report
Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) 2006, Visitor Profile Report 2004, 16, 2006, from
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