PROS AND CONS OF CHARTIER'S CHANGE MODEL AND KURT LEWIN CHANGE MODEL
Change is a common thread that runs through all businesses regardless of size, industry and age. Our world is changing fast and, as such, organizations must change quickly too. Organizations that handle change well thrive, whilst those that do not may struggle to survive.
The concept of "change management" is a familiar one in most businesses today. But, how businesses manage change (and how successful they are at it) varies enormously depending on the nature of the business, the change and the people involved. And a key part of this depends on how far people within it understand the change process.1
Before we can compare and criticize the similarities of two Managing Change Models, we have to scope first their definitions and importance in the field of the study.
Lewin's Change Management Model
Concerned with social change and, more particularly, with effective, permanent social change, Kurt Lewin believed that the motivation to change was strongly related to action: If people are active in decisions affecting them, they are more likely to adopt new ways. "Rational social management", he said, "proceeds in a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of action".2
Action research is problem centered, client centered, and action oriented. It involves the client system in a diagnostic, active-learning, problem-finding, and problem-solving process. Data are not simply returned in the form of a written report but instead are fed back in open joint sessions, and the client and the change agent collaborate in identifying and ranking specific problems, in devising methods for finding their real causes, and in developing plans for coping with them realistically and practically.
Unfreezing: Faced with a dilemma or disconfirmation, the individual or group becomes aware of a need to change. Action research is depicted as a cyclical process of change. The cycle begins with a series of planning actions initiated by the client and the change agent working together.
Changing: The situation is diagnosed and new models of behavior are explored and tested. This stage includes actions relating to learning processes (perhaps in the form of role analysis) and to planning and executing behavioral changes in the client organization.
Refreezing: Application of new behavior is evaluated, and if reinforcing, adopted. This stage includes actual changes in behavior (if any) resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage. Data are again gathered from the client system so that progress can be determined and necessary adjustments in learning activities can be made.3
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