What is the use of job analysis in an organisation
A company needs a department to foster the success of the business. As always, an organization mostly relies on the ability of their manpower, and they have to admit that not all their employees’ skills are enough to nurture the business’s growth. It is good to determine the key areas of each worker’s ability and measure it on how far they can do. And because of the problem about the manpower, the existence of the human resource department make the possible solutions be recognize.
The human resource management has many functions in the organization. The main purpose of the HR department is to facilitate the company’s workers improvement in their position. The department is the one who is fully concerned about the employees needs and problems, and with a specific approach, they try to find answers to the employees questions.
Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Also in job analysis involves the process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.
An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person and the data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.
Purpose of Job Analysis
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal. The Job Analysis can be used in training or needs assessment, compensation, selection procedures, and performance review.
Training and Development
1. training content
2. assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
3. equipment to be used in delivering the training
4. methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)
1. skill levels
2. compensable job factors
3. work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
4. responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
5. required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)
1. job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;
2. appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
3. minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
4. interview questions;
5. selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
6. applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
7. orientation materials for applicants/new hires
1. goals and objectives
2. performance standards
3. evaluation criteria
4. length of probationary periods
5. duties to be evaluated
Methods of Job Analysis
There are several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These includes job classification review, incumbent interviews, supervisor interviews, expert panels, structured questionnaires, task inventories, check lists, open-ended questionnaires, observation, and incumbent work logs.
A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the present a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.
The method that the analyst may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
Analyzing the Job
1. Duties and Tasks - The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
2. Environment - This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
3. Tools and Equipment - Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
4. Relationships – Employee relationship with the co-workers that are given or taken.
5. Requirements - The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required in performing the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
The existence of the Human Resource Management in the company is very essential because they are the first department to answer the questions of every employee. The HR staffs are carefully chosen to assist the mission of the department. The responsibilities that include in their workload can be determined as an on-going process.
The HR department’s roles involve employment and recruiting that includes interviewing and testing the labor coordination. It seems like a stage because the training and development takes place where the orientation, performance management skills is measured, and enhancing the productivity. Their duty is also engage in the compensation or wage and salary matters, and benefits such as insurance, administering vacation leaves, or retirement plans.
It also includes the ensuring of the health and safety of all the employees. And if possible, based on the job analysis that they conducted upon the employee, they can be serve as the partner of the whole organization in the decision for promotion and transfer. Their main duty is to prepare the assessed data of the candidates in making the decision.
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