The Impact of Globalization on the Chinese Economy
Category : Chinese Economy, Globalization
The Impact of Globalization on the Chinese Economy
Lu Zhiqiang, Vice President (Vice Minister),
Research Development Centre of the State Council
Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,
The World Services Congress takes place at a special time in a special place. It is the time that the World Trade Organization has concluded the marathon negotiations on China’s bid to become a WTO member. It is the place (Hong Kong) which has made profound contributions to China’s economic reform by continuously playing a significant role in it. Needless to say, at such a time and place, the discussion on the developments of the world service industry should give a special meaning to China. And I believe the congress would benefit both the developments of the world service industry and the Chinese economy.
The globalization speedily driven by the world economy has been shaping the world in a profound way. With this mega trend, China was able to break the bondage of the Cultural Revolution. It has taken a historical step to initiate a set of policies conducive to reform and liberalization, with modernization as its mission. Such a move has transformed China from a planned economy into a socialist market economy. It leads China in further opening up and integrating with the global economy, which will in turn speed up the progress of modernization in the country. Over the past 20 years, China achieved significant economic growth. If China failed to make such a decisive move, China would miss the golden opportunity to advance its economy. In absence of such a sound external environment created by economic globalization, the effectiveness of China’s open door policy would have been lacklustre. It explains what motivates China to play a active part in economic globalization.
The impact of globalization on China’s economic growth is far-reaching. During the past 20 years, China’s international trade expanded 16 times, with its ranking in the world bounced to seventh from the original 32nd. Trade dependence rate lifted from 10 to 36%. The amount of FDI is now the largest amongst developing countries. According to a modular study on the synergy of FDI conducted by the Development Research Centre of the State Council, China’s GDP recorded an average annual growth rate of 9.7% over the past 20 years, of which 2.7% was attributed to FDI. Apart from using such statistics to show the impact of globalization on the Chinese economy, we recognize that integration with the world economy is instrumental to improving the Chinese economic structure, speeding up the establishment of the market economy, raising the level of corporate governance and technological capability, as well as optimizing its human resources.
The impact of globalization on China’s economic growth is momentous. Globalization presents to everyone a world which is increasingly liberalized and market-oriented. It also brings us intensified competition and a greater degree of interdependence. Every one must learn to adapt to the increasingly competitive environment, and coordinate and cooperate with others in line with the new rules. Hence, the practices of different governments would inevitably be challenged. Whichever government comes to proceed with strategies or policy assessment and planning, economic globalization is definitely an important factor to be taken into account. The Chinese government has adopted a series of strategically significant policies so as to address the challenge of economic globalization. These include readjustment of the economic structure by speeding up the development of the high technology sector and the western region; transformation of the pattern of economic growth by strengthening IT education and sustainable development as well as further development of the outward-oriented economy by implementing “come in” and “go out” strategies. Besides, the government is consolidating reform in SOEs and government administration with a view to establish a governing mechanism in compliance with international rules and practices. These policies obviously facilitates China’s further integration into the global economy.
Economic globalization creates cross-boundary impact on the economy and administration of a country/region. A ruling regime, if accountable, should uphold the principle of maintaining the stability and growth of the world economy. It is evident that the Chinese government is an accountable government. Its economic policies not only serve to meet the needs of China’s economic progress, but also take into account the possible impact on the world. Its response to the Asian financial turmoil is a typical example.
The success of the open door policy has boosted Chinese people’s self-confidence, and has also established a liberal thinking in the country. Chinese people acknowledge that today’s success is a result of liberalization, which has long been our primary target. Though like other nations, China may have a different interpretation of globalization and some specific ideas to cope with the challenges arisen from it, a few Chinese people would advocate going back to “isolationism” and hardly any would call for shutting the door of the country.
The newly-promulgated Tenth Five Year Plan clearly demonstrates China’s attitude towards economic globalization. The theme of the plan is outlined as that “In the 21st century, with growing globalization, the IT wave, rapid economic restructuring, intensifying global competition and radical changes in the world economy, particularly its imminent accession into the WTO, China is no doubt facing enormous opportunities and hefty challenges.” Such an idea, by and large, will guide the future course. Some scholars even remarked that the Tenth Five Year Plan is in fact a plan to address the challenges of China’s accession to the WTO and globalization.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
China is marching towards the WTO and embarking on a new phase of liberalization. The new phase will mark the paradigm shift on liberalization from the previous confines of commodity trade to all-directional opening. It will phase-in the liberalization of such services as banking, insurance, telecommunications, external trade, internal trade and tourism as well as the national treatment for foreign enterprises. The commitment to wider opening the service industry not only aligns with the requirements set during the WTO talks for bilateral market access, but also due to the fact that the rapid development of the service sector becomes indispensable under the evolution of modern China. If China strives to boost the quality and quantity of the economy, attain balanced economic development, cope with the growing domestic demand, raise employment, speed up the integration of systems and so on, the only way is to propel the development of the service sector. It is an important measure to maintain the high speed of China’s sustainable economic growth. As such, liberalization of services can bring about a win-win case.
China is a developing country. Its service sector is relatively small in scale and weak in strength compared with other sectors in the country and its counterparts in the foreign countries. The industry is pre-dominated by traditional services and has yet to be diversified sector-wise. When it opens up, it will definitely feel the pressure from other countries, which have preemptive advantages in business ideas, strength and scale. However, the open door reform over the past 20 years witnessed the successful transformation from a traditional planned economy to a market economy and from seclusion to openness. The impact of such a change has gone beyond expectation and been overwhelming. And it is also true that no single country can stay away from globalization. Participation is the only way to identify and grasp the opportunities. Participation is also the only way to keep abreast with the mainstream of the world economy. I believe, human beings are wise and sensible enough to ward off pitfalls and forge ahead towards a bright future.