Category : Required Readings
By the end of this section you should be able to :
•Understand the purposes of a report
•Plan a report
•Understand the structure of a report
•Collect information for your report
•Organise your information
•Use an appropriate style of writing
•Present data effectively
•Understand how to lay out your
information in an appropriate way
•Different types of reports
•Stages in report writing
•Terms of reference
•Planning your report
•Structuring your report
•Style of writing
•Redrafting and checking
A report is a statement of the results of an investigation or
of any matter on which definite information is required.
Reports are a highly structured form of writing often
following conventions that have been laid down to
produce a common format. Structure and convention
in written reports stress the process by which the
information was gathered as much as the information
During your time at university you may be asked to
write different types of reports, depending upon the
subject area which you have chosen. These could
include laboratory reports, technical reports, reports
of a work placement or industrial visit, reports of a
field trip or field work.
Reports vary in their purpose, but all of them will
require a formal structure and careful planning,
presenting the material in a logical manner using
clear and concise language.
The following section explores each stage in the
development of your report, making recommendations
for structure and technique.
The following stages are involved in writing a report:
•clarifying your terms of reference
•planning your work
•collecting your information
•organising and structuring your
•writing the first draft
•checking and re-drafting.
Writing Reports 3
The terms of reference of a report are a guiding statement
used to define the scope of your investigation.
You must be clear from the start what you are being
asked to do. You will probably have been given an
assignment from your tutor but you may need to
discuss this further to find out the precise subject and
purpose of the report. Why have you been asked to
write it ?
Knowing your purpose will help you to communicate
your information more clearly and will help you
to be more selective when collecting your information.
Careful planning will help you to write a clear,
concise and effective report, giving adequate time to
each of the developmental stages prior to submission.
•Consider the report as a whole
•Break down the task of writing the report
into various parts.
•How much time do you have to write the
•How can this be divided up into the
various planning stages?
•Set yourself deadlines for the various
Draw up an outline structure for your report and
set the work within a sensible time scale for completion
by the given deadline.
Some of the most time-consuming parts of the
process are collecting and selecting your information,
and checking and revising your report.
Writing Reports 4
There are a number of questions you need to ask
yourself at this stage :-
•What is the information you need ?
•Where do you find it ?
•How much do you need ?
•How shall you collect it ?
•In what order will you arrange it ?
You may have much of the information you need
already such as results from a laboratory experiment
or descriptions of your methods of data collection.
However, there may be other material which is
needed such as background information on other
research studies, or literature surveys. You may need
to carry out some interviews or make a visit to the
university library to collect all the information you
•Make a list of what information you need.
•Make an action plan stating how you are
going to gather this.
The Information Technology Skills Guide contains
much useful advice on the use of electronic information
sources. This guide is available from the University's
Flexible Learning Initiative.
One helpful way of organising your information into
topics is to brainstorm your ideas into a ‘spider
•Write the main theme in the centre of a
piece of paper.
•Write down all the ideas and keywords
related to your topic starting from the
centre and branching out along lines of
•Each idea can be circled or linked by lines
•When you have finished, highlight any
related ideas and then sort topics.
•Some ideas will form main headings, and
others will be sub-sections under these
•You should then be able to see a pattern
emerging and be able to arrange your
main headings in a logical order (see
Further advice concerning the organising of material
can be found in another section of this Study Guide,
We discussed earlier that there are different types of
report such as laboratory reports or reports on an
industrial placement. Always check with the person
commissioning the report (your tutor, your placement
supervisor) to find out precisely what your
report should include and how it should be presented.
The following common elements can be
found in many different reports:
Writing Reports 6
•Abstract or summary
•Results or findings
•Conclusion and recommendations
We shall now look at each of these in turn.
This should include the title of the report (which
should give a precise indication of the subject matter),
the author’s name, module, course and the date.
You should acknowledge any help you have received
in collecting the information for the report. This may
be from librarians, technicians or computer centre
staff, for example.
You should list all the main sections of the report in
sequence with the page numbers they begin on. If
there are charts, diagrams or tables included in your
report, these should be listed separately under a title
such as ‘List of Illustrations’ together with the page
numbers on which they appear.
Abstract or summary
This should be a short paragraph summarising the
main contents of the report. It should include a short
statement of the main task, the methods used, conclusions
reached and any recommendations to be
made. The abstract or summary should be concise,
informative and independent of the report.
Write this section after you have written the report.
Writing Reports 7
This should give the context and scope of the report
and should include your terms of reference. State
your objectives clearly, define the limits of the report,
outline the method of enquiry, give a brief general
background to the subject of the report and indicate
the proposed development.
In this section you should state how you carried out
your enquiry. What form did your enquiry take ? Did
you carry out interviews or questionnaires, how did
you collect your data ? What measurements did you
make ? How did you choose the subjects for your
interviews ? Present this information logically and
Results or findings
Present your findings in as simple a way as possible.
The more complicated the information looks, the
more difficult it will be to interpret. There are a
number of ways in which results can be presented.
Here are a few :
•Are all your diagrams / illustrations
•Do they all have titles?
•Is the link between the text and the
•Are the headings precise?
•Are the axes of graphs clearly labelled?
•Can tables be easily interpreted?
•Have you abided by any copyright laws
when including illustrations/tables from
Writing Reports 8
This is the section where you can analyse and interpret
your results drawing from the information
which you have collected, explaining its significance.
Identify important issues and suggest explanations
for your findings. Outline any problems encountered
and try and present a balanced view.
Conclusions and recommendations
This is the section of the report which draws together
the main issues. It should be expressed clearly and
should not present any new information. You may
wish to list your recommendations in separate
section or include them with the conclusions.
It is important that you give precise details of all the
work by other authors which has been referred to
within the report. Details should include :
•author’s name and initials
•date of publication
•title of the book, paper or journal
•place of publication
•details of the journal volume in which the
article has appeared.
References should be listed in alphabetical order of
the authors' names.
Make sure that your references are accurate and
An appendix contains additional information related
to the report but which is not essential to the main
findings. This can be consulted if the reader wishes
but the report should not depend on this. You could
include details of interview questions, statistical
data, a glossary of terms, or other information which
may be useful for the reader.
Writing Reports 9
Style of writing
There are several points that you will need to consider
when you are writing your report:
Active or passive?
Your tutor will be able to advise whether the report
should be written in the ‘active’ or ‘passive’ voice.
The active voice reads as follows:
‘I recommend ...’
The passive voice reads:
‘It is recommended that ...’
The active voice allows you to write short, punchy
The passive appears more formal and considered.
Be aware of these differences and avoid mixing the
Most written reports should avoid using overly
complicated language. If a report is to persuade, brief
or justify, it's message must be clear. Furthermore,
the factual presentation of data should not be
swamped with sophisticated, lengthy sentences.
Avoid using unnecessary jargon. This confuses even
the most informed reader.
Ensure that your abbreviations are standardised. All
too often authors invent their own jargon to ease the
pressure on writing things in full. Be cautious of
confusing your reader.
Use of language
Most reports should avoid the use of subjective
language. For example, to report on a change in
colouration from a "stunning green to a beautiful
blue" is to project your own values onto a measurable
outcome. What does the term "beautiful" mean
to you? What will it mean to your reader? Such
subjective, or personal language commonly has no
place in the more objective field of report writing.
Writing Reports 10
Most reports have a progressive numbering system.
The most common system is the decimal notation
The main sections are given single arabic numbers -
1, 2, 3 and so on.
Sub-sections are given a decimal number - 1.1, 1.2,
1.3 and so on.
Sub-sections can be further divided into - 1.11, 1.12,
1.13 and so on.
An example structure would look as follows;
The following suggestions will help you to produce
an easily read report:
•Leave wide margins for binding and
feedback comments from your tutor.
•Paragraphs should be short and concise.
•Headings should be clear - highlighted in
bold or underlined.
•All diagrams and illustrations should be
labelled and numbered.
•All standard units, measurements and
technical terminology should be listed in
a glossary of terms at the back of your
Writing Reports 11
Once you have written the first draft of your report
you will need to check it through. It is probably
sensible to leave it on your desk for a day or so if you
have the time. This will make a clear break from the
intensive writing period, allowing you to view your
work more objectively.
Assess your work in the following areas:
Look at the clarity and precision of your work.
Use the report writing checklist at the end of this
section to check your report.
You may like to carry out a more formal evaluation.
Use the section Assessing yourself to help you draft
assessment criteria and evaluate your work.
The skills involved in writing a report will help you
to condense and focus information, drawing objective
findings from detailed data.
The ability to express yourself clearly and succinctly
is an important skill and is one that can be greatly
enhanced by approaching each report in a planned
and focused way.
RedWriting Reports 12
Does this include the :
Have you acknowledged all sources of help?
Have you listed all the main sections in
Have you included a list of illustrations?
•Abstract or summary
Does this state:
The main task?
The methods used?
The conclusions reached?
The recommendations made?
Does this include:
Your terms of reference?
The limits of the report?
An outline of the method?
A brief background to the subject matter?
Does this include:
The form your enquiry took?
The way you collected your data?
•Reports and findings
Are your diagrams clear and simple?
Are they clearly labelled?
Do they relate closely to the text?
Have you identified key issues?
Have you suggested explanations for your
Have you outlined any problems encountered?
Have you presented a balanced view?
Writing Reports 13
•Conclusions and recommendations
Have you drawn together all of your main
Have you avoided any new information?
Are any recommendations clear and concise?
Have you listed all references alphabetically?
Have you included all the necessary
Are your references accurate?
Have you only included supporting
Does the reader need to read these sections?
Have you used clear and concise language?
Are your sentences short and jargon free/
Are your paragraphs tightly focused?
Have you used the active or the passive voice?
Have you clearly labelled each section?
Is your labelling consistent throughout the
Have you left sufficient margin space for
Are your headings clear?
Have you checked your spelling?
•What are the main points for consideration?
•What have you done well?
•What needs fine tuning?
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