Biological/Biosocial and Classical Theories of Crime
Category : Criminology
Theories of Crime
Committing an offense or violence against the law is commonly seen in both urban and rural places. It is common to see that most of the offenders are males, but there is also a history that tells the society that the women also commit criminal acts.
There are many incidents where it is identified that the biological factors are present among women who commit crimes meanwhile, environmental factors urges the males to commit an offense. Through these facts, the idea of knowing the root of the criminal behavior has been an evolving topic in every government, especially in those places where there is an alarming number of criminal offenses.
The Classical School
The classical criminology is a school of thought which is based on the utilitarian notions of free will and the greatest goo for the greatest number. The entire classical school believes in the commitment of an individual on a crime that weighs the pros and cons ( 2005).
This is an assumption that based on people exercise free will and completely responsible in any actions they commit. The classical theory involves the human behavior and criminal behavior motivated with rationality. The law enforcers are the usual actors that weigh the potential and possible action against the possible pain associated with the crime. They sometimes turn to the option of imprisonment which is definitely by the book. The best countered action is through the deterrence-based system ( 2005).
The deterrence theory is the core principle of classical school and rational choice of theories. It only states that a crime can be controlled through the use of punishments that combine the proper degrees of certainty, severity, and clarity. This belief is the key element in the U.S. justice system.
The study in biosocial aspect of human race demonstrated the gender differences in crime incidence. Based on the record, males have the greater chances to commit and offenders of crime and violence than the females. In addition, males likely repeat their crimes. The biosocial studies suggest that there are gender difference in the prevalence and prediction of crime and the inability of any one factor to be a strong predictor of crime. The results are to be found in the biological factors where crimes are strong among males and with certain association such as sociological, psychological, and environmental conditions (1994). The biological theories of crime causation are based on the belief that criminals are physiologically different form non-criminals.
Biological and Sociological
The biological factors are nonsocial, non-behavioral measures or functions such as abnormalities. This kind of approach is a crucial in understanding the occurrence and conditions of the crime in a gender. Accordingly, the urban, socioeconomic, and environmental factors indicate the presence of crimes among individuals. If a person have a family structure that is unorganized such as the economic stability of the family, occupation, education, number of family members and status of the children, the kind of theories are present. This will also leads to a person to commit an offense just to survive for a day ( 1994). The situation of an individual is another factor to trigger an anti-social behavior that correlates to the violence (2006).
Biological and Psychological
The biological and psychological theories of crime emphasize the physiological and psychological capacities of individuals to adjust to their environments and to learn an appropriate behavior. There are individuals who show mental disorders or low intelligence due to malnutrition, mental capacity or learning capabilities. With these factors, an individual may act differently, or committing crime without knowing it. In some cases the insanity is acquitted or pleaded and given by any special attention from the institution (1994).
Biological and Environmental
Both biological and environmental factors influence the appearance of crime and violence in the society. It appears that, this combination is the most risky predictive of later mental and behavioral disorders specifically, in the youth. The youth feels difficult during their developmental stage and without guidance, they might involve in gang wars. The environmental insults they receive will make it hard for them and for the record; there are incidence of death among the youth. The feeling of “stress” is the common disorder that they might feel while staying in the society and struggling with the developmental difficulties (Denno, 1994). The anti-social behavior might also visible among the youth (2006).
Key Concepts of the Classical School
The classical criminology was designed to provide the rational, logical, and philosophical approach to the criminal action which is in contrast of being abusive, cruel, inhumane, and arbitrary system of justice. The school relies on the classical criminology perspective and operates accordingly to the US Constitution and Declaration of Independence.
The perspective of choice is the main concept of the classical school whereas an individual has his own will to follow or violate the law. The approach of the school attracts much system because it is centered on choice. This perspective is related to the different factors present in the society, and the freedom of choice bounds an individual to take responsibility in every decisions of choice. Meanwhile, the idea of deterrence in preventing the individuals to commit the criminal action is clearly not a deciding factor. Its influence is only coordinated by the idea that people do no commit criminal acts because of the belief that it is wrong to do so, and because they have been socialized to follow the norms of the society.
The criminal or criminology theories are the assumptions that attempts to explain the criminal behavior, not only of the outlaw but as well as the behavior of the police, lawyers, judges, correctional personnel, victims and the other actors in the criminal justice process. The knowledge about the criminal theories gave way to understand that more recent biological or biosocial theories pin-pointed that even if there are biological traits in an individual that might trigger the crimes is eliminated with proper guidance and effective social programs and they can be managed ( 2005).
In Depth Analysis
The biological/biosocial theories support the idea that an individual commit criminal acts due to biological or genetic defects. The theories added that the crime is a result of the abnormalities that an individual received and not by a choice made by the offender ( 2005). As part of the solution on this problem, the crime can be prevented through isolation, treating, separating, sterilizing, or killing the individual.
In contrast, the classical theory believed that every individual are given their own right and freedom of choice. The support is very evident in U.S. justice system. In addition, the classical theory proposed an action that is more humane than of the biological/biosocial theories. The deterrence is the simple idea where the crime can be reduced because of the natural fear of people. People fear of the apprehension of the punishment they might receive.
Part of the human nature is to act according to want he feels. The main reason is that everyone is given their own mind to think what is right and what is wrong. The argument about the theories is somehow related to each other. If the person will commit an intentional offense, then he violated the law. If the person acted through his mental retardation then, he will be part of the rehabilitation. The different kind of situations only supported the humane action in every offense an individual may create and that is to give them another chance to live.