Dissertation Methodology Chapter 3 Sample : Greek Wine Industry
Methods and Procedures
This chapter shall discuss the research methods available for the study and what is applicable for it to use. Likewise, the chapter shall present how the research will be implemented and how to come up with pertinent findings.
Method of Research to be used
There are three kinds of research methods, correlational, experimental and descriptive. The correlational kind of research method is used due to ethical problems with experiments. Moreover, it is also used due to practical problems with experiments. Moreover, inferring causality from correlation not actually impossible, but very difficult. This mode of study is widely applicable, cheap, and usually ethical. Nonetheless, there exist some "third variable" issues and measurement problems. The correlational research refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlational statistics (r). The square of a correlation coefficient yields the explained variance (r-squared). A correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, so we have to be careful and remember that correlation does not necessarily tell us about cause and effect. If a strong relationship is found between two variables, using an experimental approach can test causality.
On the other hand, the experimental method is the only method that can be used to establish cause-and-effect relationships. (Creswell, 1994) That is, it is the only one that can be used to explain the bases of behaviour and mental processes. In this method, the subjects are split into two (or more) groups. One group, called the experimental group gets the treatment that the researcher believes will cause something to happen (this treatment is formally called the independent variable). The experimental and control groups are compared on some variable that is presumed to reflect the effects of the treatment, or outcome. This is formally referred to as the dependent variable.
And lastly, the descriptive research method uses observation and surveys. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. It could also suggest unanticipated hypotheses. Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, this study will use the descriptive approach. This descriptive type of research will utilize observations in the study. To illustrate the descriptive type of research, (1994) will guide the researcher when he stated: Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire of the researcher to obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.
The research described in this document is partly based on quantitative research methods. This permits a flexible and iterative approach. During data gathering the choice and design of methods are constantly modified, based on ongoing analysis. This allows investigation of important new issues and questions as they arise, and allows the investigators to drop unproductive areas of research from the original research plan.
This study also employs qqualitative research method, since this research intends to find and build theories that would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research. These qualitative elements does not have standard measures, rather they are behavior, attitudes, opinions, and beliefs.
Furthermore, as we define the qualitative research it is multi-method in focus, involving an interpretative, naturalistic approach to its subject matter. This means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Accordingly, qualitative researchers deploy a wide range of interconnected methods, hoping always to get a better fix on the subject matter at hand.
Respondents of the Study
In order to have first hand information, the researcher has respondents of the study which are composed of employees and other individuals related to wine industries in
On the other hand, due to travel distance and time limitation, the researcher did not think it feasible to get qualitative data through face-to-face interviews with these respondents. Hence, the questionnaire-survey has been used to collect data on the respondents’ demographic profile first to check that the sample is appropriately stratified and representative and second to provide further information about the sample for analysis purposes.
To determine whether
The equivalent weights for the answers are:
4.50 – 5.00 Strongly Agree
3.50 – 4.00 Agree
2.50 – 3.49 Uncertain
1.50 – 2.49 Disagree
0.00 – 1.49 Strongly Disagree
The researcher opted to use the questionnaire as a tool since it is easy to construct having the rules and principles of construction are easy to follow. Moreover, copies of the questionnaire could reach a considerable number of respondents either by mail or by personal distribution. Generally, responses to a questionnaire are objectified and standardized and these make tabulation easy. But more importantly, the respondents’ replies are of their own free will because there is no interviewer to influence them. This is one way to avoid biases, particularly the interviewers’ bias.
Validity of the Data
Closed questions type is use for the survey. A closed question is one that has pre-coded answers. The simplest is the dichotomous question to which the respondent must answer yes or no. there is three classified types of questions: behavioral, attitudinal and classification. Behavioral questions seek factual information on what the respondents do or own; attitudinal questions intend to know what respondents think of something; and classificatory questions seek information that can be used to group respondents to see how they differ one from another. For this study, the above mentioned three types of closed questions will be used to analyse the behaviors and attitudes of the respondents toward a successful project teams.
Closed questions were used because the answers are easy to analyse and are straightforward as target respondents are mostly busy that they do not have enough time to give attention to open questions. Closed response questions save the respondent having to think of possible replies. They also make the process easier for the interviewer who simply has to tick a box or circle a number. Moreover, they spare the coding staff difficult judgments which, if wrong, can skew the findings.
For validation purposes, the researcher initially submits a sample of the set of survey questionnaires and after approval; the survey will be conducted to five respondents. After the questions were answered, the researcher then asks the respondents for any suggestions or any necessary corrections to ensure further improvement and validity of the instrument. The researcher again examines the content of the interview questions to find out the reliability of the instrument. The researchers exclude irrelevant questions and will change words that would be deemed difficult by the respondents, to much simpler terms.
Administration of the Instrument
The researcher excluded the five respondents who were initially used for the validation of the instrument. The researcher will also tally, score and tabulate all the responses in the provided interview questions. Moreover, structured interview will be used in this research study. Structured interview is a kind of interview that promotes a question and answer process. It is composed of a detailed explicit questions and the researcher shall divert from putting or adding any other comment while the process of interviewing is being conducted. In addition, the researcher must be able to let the interviewee to elucidate further those unclear statements. However, the interviewer must see to it that the process should remain objective rather than subjective and that he/she does not have any right to state his/her own opinions and ideas so as not to influence the answers or comments of the interviewee.
Statistical Treatment of the Data
When the entire survey questionnaire will have been collected, the researcher will use statistics to analyse all the data.
The statistical formulae to be used in the survey questionnaire will be the following:
1. Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire.
% = -------- x 100 ; n – number of responses
N N – total number of respondents
2. Weighted Mean
f1x1 + f2x2 + f3x3 + f4x4 + f5x5
x = --------------------------------------------- ;
Where: f – weight given to each response
x – number of responses
xt – total number of responses
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