The impact of motivation on employee performance research proposal.
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The impact of motivation on employee performance
Major theories of motivation are classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. Whereas the latter help explain motivation, the former identify levers for improving worker motivation and performance. Seven key strategies for improving work motivation are distilled from the exogenous theories. Illustrative programs are described for implementing those strategies, programs that aim at creating organizations in which workers are both better satisfied and more productive. Suggestions are offered for improving the science and technology of work motivation.
Background to the study
Many studies have demonstrated the relatively successful performance implications of formalized goal-setting programs in organizations. However, these findings typically do not identify the specific factors behind such techniques that are largely responsible for their success. Toward this end, research relating to 6 factor analytically derived attributes of employees' task goals is reviewed to ascertain which attributes are more consistently related to performance. The 6 task-goal attributes are goal specificity, participation in goal setting, feedback, peer competition, goal difficulty, and goal acceptance. Although goal specificity and goal acceptance were found to be most consistently related to performance, several intervening variables emerged that tended to affect significantly the impact of certain attributes on performance. Findings are discussed within motivational framework. It is argued, based on the data, that performance under goal-setting conditions is a function of at least three important variables: the nature of the task goals, additional situational-environmental factors, and individual differences.
Productivity improvement in service organizations is of major concern to managers as one way of countering escalating costs. In service organizations in which the client/customer is directly involved in the production function, improved performance can be secured by viewing the client/customer as a "partial" employee. This proposition in turn leads to the suggestion that productivity gains can be realized for services by expanding conventional motivation concepts to include the client/customer. The effect of job enrichment on employee responses as investigated among clerical employees, who were randomly assigned to either an enriched or unenriched condition. In the enriched condition, systematic attempt was made to increase the extent to which the jobs of the employees possessed each of the dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. It is argued that in order to explain the effect of enrichment on performance, it is necessary to consider other factors besides the psychological states produced by jobs which are seen to have certain characteristics.
Objective of the study
The need to comprehensively evaluate links between systems of High Performance Work Practices and firm performance. Results base on sample of nearly fifty firms indicated practices can have significant impact on both intermediate employee outcomes (turnover and productivity) and short, long-term measures of corporate financial performance. Support for predictions that the impact of High Performance Work Practices on firm performance is in part contingent on their interrelationships and links with competitive strategy will be limited.
What is goal setting about? How is employee performance recognized despite failures in motivation? By explicitly or implicitly of work motivation theories. The ubiquity of goal setting in these theories stems from the general recognition that rational human action is goal directed. Research will examine relative importance of key job dimensions and leadership characteristics in enhancing salesperson motivation and work performance. To gain insight, relative effects of job dimensions and leadership behavior on intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation of salespersons are examined, with results indicating that key job dimensions are more instrumental in enhancing work motivation, and leadership behavior more influential in effecting extrinsic motivation.
Significance of the study
Limitation and delimitation of the study
After decades of research it is now possible to offer coherent, data-based theory of work motivation and job satisfaction. The present model combines aspects of the following theories: goal setting, expectancy, social-cognitive, attribution, job characteristics, equity, and turnover-commitment. The resulting model is called the high performance cycle. It begins with organizational members being faced with high challenge or difficult goals. If high challenge is accompanied by high expectancy of success or self-efficacy, high performance results, given that there is: commitment to the goals, feedback, adequate ability, and low situational constraints. High performance is achieved through four mechanisms, direction of attention and action, effort, persistence, and the development of task strategies and plans. High performance, if rewarding, leads to job satisfaction, which in turn facilitates commitment to the organization and its goals.
Chapter 2- literature Review
(1977) have noted that such positions have argued that current knowledge of the determinants of motivation and performance in industrial selling is woefully inadequate. As first step toward improving this situation, the authors offer conceptual model which identify set of individual, interpersonal, organizational, environmental variables that may influence a salesman's motivation and job performance. The model incorporates many constructs and research findings from industrial psychology and other disciplines, but its primary purpose is to provide a conceptual framework and some specific hypotheses to help guide future empirical research in sales management (1977 ). Moreover, such scheme did not improve employee motivation, it is hard to see how it could have enhanced employee performance. The study has potentially important implications for the government policy of seeking to improve the functioning of the public sector through performance-related pay ( 2009).
Research study will examine role of service climate in the prediction of employee performance and motivation. Contact employees (N=50) from 10 service units (25 HR managers and 25 production employees) will provide information about organizational resources, engagement, and service climate. Furthermore, customers (N=100) from the units will provide information on employee performance and motivation. Structural equation modeling analysis will be consistent with a model in which organizational resources and work engagement predict service climate, which in turn predicts employee performance and then its motivation. Further analysis will be revealed of potential reciprocal effect between motivating climate and motivation tenets. Implications of the study will be discussed, together with limitations and suggestions for future research. The integration of comparative framework as used to assess the present understanding of motivational context in employee performance at work. Comparative public-private research on individual, job, work environment as well as external variables affecting motivation are to be reviewed. In light of research, efficacy of motivational techniques-monetary incentives, goal setting, job design and participation will be explain as well and the focusing on topics such as measurability of performance, goal clarity, and job security.
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