A research proposal on the role of music therapy in addressing the behavioral problems of children and teenagers.
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The role of music therapy in addressing the behavioral problems of children and teenagers
Music is used to enhance well-being, reduce stress, and distract patients from unpleasant symptoms. Although there are wide variations in individual preferences, music appears to exert direct physiologic effects through the autonomic nervous system. It also has indirect effects by modifying caregiver behavior. Music effectively reduces anxiety and improves mood for medical and surgical patients, for patients in intensive care units and patients undergoing procedures, and for children as well as adults. Music is intervention that often reduces surgical, procedural, acute, and chronic pain. Music also improves the quality of life for patients receiving palliative care, enhancing sense of comfort and relaxation.
Providing music to caregivers may be cost-effective and enjoyable strategy to improve empathy, compassion, and relationship-centered care while not increasing errors or interfering with technical aspects of care. Music has been used since ancient times to enhance well-being and reduce pain and suffering. This article will review the medically relevant effects of music, focusing on pain, anxiety, and mood not discuss the use of music to enhance cognitive development or for patients with severe developmental delays, dementia, psychiatric disorders, neurologic disorders, sensory handicaps, or in institutional settings such as correctional facilities or schools, though a great deal of work has been done in these areas.
One of the new physicians on staff in your newborn nursery suggests that you start playing recordings ofclassical music for the infants. The day shift nurses usually listen to a soft rock music station on the radio, and are reluctant to change. The evening and night shift nurses have not played any music. Is there any evidence that music affects newborn infants? If so, what kind of music might be best?
Increasing numbers of patients in gastrointestinal clinics bring their own CD or MP3 players to clinic visits to help them relax during colonoscopy. What is the evidence that music reduces anxiety, improves mood, or eases the stress associated with procedures? Do all people respond the same way to the same kinds of music, or should everyone just listen to whatever they like? Some of the nurses in the preoperative and postoperative areas provide headphones and play New Age music for their patients. Is there any evidence that music helps reduce pain or enhances wound healing in the perioperative period? One surgeon prefers to listen to country western while another likes classical. How does listening to music affect clinician or caregiver performance?
Among infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit, excessive noise is correlated with decreases in oxygen saturation and increases in heart rate and sleep disturbances. For example, nursery rhymes may be soothing for toddlers, but hearing the Sesame Street or Barney song several times daily can be irritating for adolescents or parents. High-tempo contemporary music is often used to increase athletic performance, whereas baroque music may be preferred for relaxing after a stressful examination, and jazz may be preferred for socializing. Recently, specific types of music have been marketed to enhance pediatric development, to address cognitive problems, and to enhance effectiveness of other complementary therapies such as Reiki and massage. Music therapy is recognized as an established allied health profession that uses music to facilitate therapeutic processes (1999). Music therapists are typically musicians who have undergone specific training in using music and the therapist's self to accomplish therapeutic aims: the restoration, maintenance, and improvement of mental and physical health. Music therapists work in variety of settings as part of the health care team even in the absence of professional music therapist, many patients and clinicians listen to or play music to manage stress, anxiety, and pain in clinical settings.
Music and music therapy may benefit patients directly may also affect patients indirectly through its effects on caregiver attitudes and behaviors. With regard to direct physiologic effects, in animals, music changes neuronal activity with entrainment to musical rhythms in the lateral temporal lobe and in cortical areas devoted to movement. Steady rhythms entrain respiratory patterns. Listening to classical music increases heart rate variability, measure of cardiac autonomic balance, whereas listening to noise or rock music decreases heart rate variability ( 1998; 1999).
There is good evidence for use of music therapy with surgery patients and cancer patients but mixed evidence for use of music therapy with patients having medical procedures. Perhaps factors that affect the effectiveness of music therapy in patients waiting or undergoing uncomfortable procedures include individual differences such as music preferences, initial anxiety level, and level of interest in being distracted from the procedure. Music therapy may offer benefit to some patients undergoing these procedures by helping to divert their attention from potentially unpleasant experiences as there maybe important to tailor the intervention to patient desires and preferences. Music play central role in all human cultures have direct and indirect effects on physiology and clinical symptoms. Carefully selected music can reduce stress, enhance a sense of comfort and relaxation, offer distraction from pain, and enhance clinical performance. Additional research is needed to better define its optimal role in comprehensive, cost-effective patient care, music therapy appears to be safe and likely helpful to a broad spectrum of patients in diverse clinical situations.
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