Organizational Behavior Essay
Organizational behavior is defined as a social science discipline just like cultural anthropology, economics, political science, psychology and sociology. It uses the scientific method to establish the truth as well as to validate the different theories. It is also considered as a discipline that is related to other social sciences that has its origins historically has had its intellectual home in the business school and a new discipline that is related to other social sciences that has its origins during the mid of twentieth century (Miner, 2002, p. 3).
The main focus of the discipline is the world of organization with the connection or relation to the behavior and nature of the different people that are involved in an organization and the behavior and nature of the organization towards their environment (Miner, 2002, p. 3).
This study will focus on the two objectives of the organizational behavior which are the communication and innovation. It will also focus on its connection to the main or core concept of the article Unlock Discretionary Effort. It will give emphasis on the application or connection of the two said objectives in the real world
II Literature Review
Communication and motivation plays an important role in managing the human resource of any company or organization. Motivation and communication can be considered as inseparable in any human resource management activities or organizational behavior techniques. The said two elements go hand and hand in pursuing the employees and bringing out the best of their human resources.
Communication and motivation are two vital elements for an effective organizational behavior and occur both in the formal and informal level of any organization (Freeman, 1999, p. 280).
Motivation is considered as one of the most complex issues in organizational behavior. It is the process that helps to arouse as well as sustain the goal-directed behavior. It comes from the Latin word movere meaning to move (Quick, 2006, p. 150). Intentions, desires, needs as well as aspiration are the diverse terms that can be used to elucidate the things that energize and pushes the worker’s behavior that can affect the organizational behavior as a whole. It can be physiological necessities or whims (Stroh & Northcraft, 2002, p. 64).
There have been many theories that explain the different factors that affect human motivation in order to accomplish different works or tasks. The main concept here is that different people have their different reason for constantly changing their intentions, desires, needs as well as aspiration. The said constant change of the motivation drivers is a great challenge for the manager or the bosses of any organization or company to create a framework that will help them to understand their subordinates’ motives, how to used these motives for the improvement of the company as well as how it evolve overtime (Stroh & Northcraft, 2002, p. 64). There are three well known theories that focuses on the different driver of motivation that affects the overall organization behavior, the: Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory and the McClelland’s learned needs theory (Stroh & Northcraft, 2002, p. 89)
1. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
Among all the motivation theory, the most significant and most popular theory is the Maslow’s needs-hierarchy theory. Abraham Maslow together with his needs-hierarchy theory, changes the belief about the economic theories of worker motivation during the 1940s (Stroh & Northcraft, 2002, p. 64).
The theory of Maslow was based on a number of assumptions. The first assumption was the 5 divisions or classifications of the human wants and needs: the basic physiological needs; the safety needs; the belonging/affiliation needs; the esteem needs; and the self-actualization needs (Stroh & Northcraft, 2002, p. 64). Figure 1 show the five categories of human wants and needs.
Figure 1 The Maslow’s Needs-Hierarchy Theory
Adapted from (Stroh & Northcraft, 2002, p. 65)
2. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Herzberg’s two factor was one of the first and most influential motivation theory during the mid-twentieth century. The theory focuses on the different factors that cause the workers or employee’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work. The theory believes that the main explanations for the satisfaction of the workers are those factors that are intrinsic to the work itself such as different opportunities for achievement. On the other hand, those extrinsic factors such as company policies are the one that can cause dissatisfaction of the workers. The main idea of the theory is that there are two classifications of factors that might affect the motivation of the worker which are the: motivator factors that serves as determinants of satisfaction; and the hygiene factors that pushes the other way around (Anderson & Ones, 2001, p. 92).
3. McClelland’s Need Theory
McClelland’s need theory focuses on the personality and learned needs of the employees. The said theory was developed by David McClelland that was inspired by Henry Murray long list of different motives and manifest needs of personality studies (Nelson & Quick, 2006, cited in p. 156). The theory focuses on the three learned or acquired needs or the so called manifest needs. McClellands grouped or classified the manifest needs into three, the: needs for achievement, need for power and need for affiliation (Nelson & Quick, 2006, p. 156).
The theory also showed that employees or workers acquire and learn their definite needs somewhat than others, equally by inheritance from communal culture as well as from direct practice or incident. For instance, those workers who come to realize that they are able to expand the high level of their task-oriented competence and proficiency with ease will be able to obtain or get hold of a high need for accomplishment or success (Grandori n.d., p. 49).
Figure 2 A Logical Hierarchy of Preferences (Grandori n.d., p. 49)
Adapted from (cited in Grandori n.d., p. 49)
Communication in any relationship, groups and organization is a vital element that must be implemented, developed and maintained in order to continue and preserve harmony between the involved parties or entities. The common purpose of communication is to establish something (Miner, 2006, p. 73). Communication is important because it will serve as a channel that will drive cooperation and team work. It is considered as significant to the structure of information filters in the course of any organization, which the information is construed and is an essential part of performing those interpretations (Jablin & Putnam, 2001, p. 212).
1. Communication Process
There are two phases that are involved in the overall process of communication. The first phase is the transmission phase, where the information is being shared by two or more individuals. The second phase is the feedback phase; where in the common understanding is being assured.
The process of communication starts with the decision of the sender on what information he or she wants to share. The sender will then do the process of encoding or the process or translating the message into understandable symbols or language. After the message was encoded, it will be transmitted through a medium to be sent to the receiver of the message. A medium is also called as a communication channel that pertains to the pathway or trail through which an encoded message will be sent out to the intended person or group (Sims, 2002, p. 140). Due to the help of modern technology, there are many varieties of medium that can be used for communication such as telephone, television and radio signal and of course the use of the Internet.
After receiving the message, the receiver will then decodes the message or the process of interpreting and making sense of the message. Decoding is considered as a critical point in communication because it can involve many different processes like figuring out the spoken and written words and construing facial expressions etc (Sims, 2002, p. 141).
The feedback phase will start by the initiation of the receiver. During this phase the process will become the opposite, because the receiver will become the sender. The process will be the same, from encoding and then transmitting the message. The main difference is that the message will be containing a confirmation about the message that was first or originally sent (Sims, 2002, p. 141).
The process of communication is ongoing and continuous. Feedbacks have the ability to eradicate the presence or misunderstanding because it will ensure that the message was correctly interpreted by ensuring that both the sender and receiver can reach to a common understanding of the message (Sims, 2002, p. 141).
Unlock Discretionary Effort
The Unlock Discretionary Effort pertains to the motivation and communication effort of the organization in order to bring the best out of each and every employee in any organization or company. In terms of motivation, like what the different motivation theories that was mentioned, there are many factors or elements that can affect the performance of an employee like physiological that pertains to the material things that money can buy and the affiliation or the need for friendship or relationship. The article focuses on the adaptation of different rules and motivation technique with the personal goals of the employees. On the other hand, it also focuses on the process of communication in terms of good or positive feedback. Communication is important in an organization because it serves as a connection or link between the organizations itself and its employees. Communication can be a great motivator because effective or usual communication can make the employees feel that they are important. Communication also plays an important role with the leadership approach. The success of a leader depends greatly on the effective as well as effective practice of communication with their subordinates.
Communication in the working environment can help determine the satisfaction of the employees. For instance, allowing the employees to be involved in decision-making as well as giving them the giving feedback to the employees about their performance can help to improve or increase the satisfaction rate of the employees (Nimmo, 1979, p. 361). Satisfaction from the employees is the primary factor that pushes the employees or worker to work using their 100%. The good feedback itself is the one that motivates the workers or the employees to do their best. This is due to the fact that honor or appraisal can help the worker to build up their self-esteem that is one of the primary factors in the hierarchical needs of Maslow.
Communication can help to maintain the harmony inside the organization. Proper communication between the upper level management and the lower level management can maintain the efficiency as well as unity of the each individual and the organization as a whole. Efficient communication system can help the management to know the needs or the demands of their employees; therefore it can help to align the individual goals of each employee to the goal of the organization. Motivation technique such as incentive for those employees who have been performing well in a given period of time can help the company to meet their target production as well as motivate their employees to meet the specific quota. In addition to that, it can also help to bring out the best out of each and every employee.
Change is also one of the most important and most inevitable thing or process inside the organization or company. It can help to improve the overall flow of data and information inside the company that can help them to develop their system for improved production or performance. Change and communication, go hand and hand. It is important for the company to explain the reasons for the change and how it can affect or benefits them. This process can help to remove or lessen their fear about the negative impact of the change to their position in the organization.
Both motivation and communication can help to have a better relationship or persuasion between the organization and the employees and it can help to motivate or drive the employees to get involve and give their best shot. Moreover, both of the said elements are considered as crucial to effective managing (Miner, 2002, p. 34).
Reflection and Conclusion
Motivation and communication are two important elements in any organization or company. The different theories that are now widely used are based on the different characteristics and behavior of employees as well as different needs of the organization to its environment. In general, motivation can be classified into internal, process and external theories. The internal theory focuses on the different within the individual that give rise to motivation and behavior. Internal theories can be applied to the two articles because it focuses on the relationship of personal needs or desires to the goal or desire of the organization as a whole. On the other hand, the process theory focuses on the relationship of the employees with the company or the environment. It is connected to the article because both are related to the process of connecting the talents and performance of each and every employee to their organization or environment. The external theories focus on the different elements in the environment like the cost of their actions as the basis for consideration and explanation of the behavior of the employees at work. On the other hand, communication is important or connected to the theories of the two articles because communication will be the key element or factor that can help to implement the different procedures that were stated. Communication is the start or basis of everything inside the organization or company. It is used by all of the upper management in order to relate or inform the lower level management about what is going on in the organization or company. Communication is also the start of motivation. Effective communication is a primary key that can help to develop a harmonious relationship inside the company or organization. Harmonious relationship is one of the thing or aspect that can motivate an employee because it is one of the elements in Maslow’s theory, which is the affiliation. Working environment is one of the primary factors that can affect the satisfaction of an employee towards his or her work.
Communication and motivation are two of the most important aspects that can help to satisfy the needs and demands of the workers inside any organization or company. Satisfaction in the workplace is very important driver for motivation. It can help to increase the interest of the employees that will eventually help them to give or bring the best out of their system. Communication can help lessen the discomfort inside the working ambience. Proper communication can help to prevent misunderstanding and conflict that are considered as the primary factors that can affect the emotional discomfort and stress of the employees. On the other hand, light and happy working ambience can help the employees to work with ease that will eventually motivate the worker to relax and give their 100%.
Above all, having fun or having happy moments of bonding together can help to make each employee more intact that can help to maintain teamwork.
Anderson, N., Ones, D., Kepir Sinangil, H. & Viswewesvaran, C. 2001, Handbook of Industrial, Work & Organizational Psychology: Volume 1 Personnel Psychology, Sage Publications Ltd.
Debra, L. & Quick, J. 2006 (5th Edition), Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses, Oxford University Press, New York
Freeman, R. 1999, Correctional Organization and Management: Publicly Policy Challenges, Behavior and Structure, Elsevire
Grandori, A., Organization and Economic Behavior, Routledge
Jablin, F. & Putnam, L. 2001, The New Handbook of Organizational Communication: Advances in Theory Research and Methods, SAGE
Miner, J. 2006, Organizational Behavior 3: Historical Origins, Theoretical Foundations and the Future,M. E. Sharpe
Miner, J. 2002, Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses, Oxford University Press, New York
Nimmo, D 1979, Communication Yearbook 3, Transaction Publishers
Schuler, R., Jackson, S. & Luo, Y. 2003, Managing Human Resource in Cross-Border Alliances,Routldge
Sims, R. 2002, Managing Organizational Behavior,Greenwood Publishing Group
Stroh, L., Northcraft, G. & Neala, M. A. 2002, Organizational Behavior: A Management Challenge, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
comments powered by Disqus