Dissertation on Sociolinguistics
Measuring social performance is difficult, however, because of its link to the issue of individual effectiveness. Social performance is adequately defined as the extent to which a person meets the needs, expectations, and demands of certain external constituencies beyond those directly linked to the society’s products/markets. It is also referred to as participant observation, ecological model, or external effectiveness. Its measurement, involving the perceptions of all external constituencies in an overall index, is at best impractical (Riahi-Belkaoui, 1998). One approach, however, is to develop reputational indices, listing companies exhibiting good or bad social performance. The relationship between social disclosure, social performance, and economic performance is best expressed by the view that social responsiveness requires from management the same superior skills required to make a firm profitable. Socially responsive firms in terms of social disclosure and social performance should outperform non responsive or less responsive ones in terms of profitability as measured by accounting variables such as a rate of return on investment, and market variables such as a differential stock price return (Riahi-Belkaoui, 1998). Individuals have very important responsibilities to the changing society. This responsibilities focus on the need of the public to know the actions by that person and reasons for such action. The social performance contributes not only to the society’s economic improvement but it assist in the society’s cultural and ethical change. The way a person acts in the society will help improve or destroy the ethics and culture by a county. The paper will study the causes of cross cultural miscommunication and how teaching can stop such problem.
Aims of the report
The objectives of the paper are as follows
- Give a more concrete definition of cross cultural miscommunication
- Determine the causes of cross cultural miscommunication
- Know the means to reduce cross cultural miscommunication
- Understand what teaching English does.
- Find out if teaching English affects cross cultural beliefs
- Determine the importance of teaching to cross cultural miscommunication.
Importance of the Study
The study is important to individuals since they can know what are the causes of cross cultural miscommunication. Through the study various sectors in society can decide on how to counter cross cultural miscommunication. The management of different institutions can use the study to research the means that will help them counter cross cultural miscommunication or acts they have to refrain from doing so that they will not have cross cultural miscommunication. The management of different institutions can use to study to have a further analysis of how teaching affects cross cultural miscommunication. By fulfilling the aims and objectives of the study, this study will be helpful for other researchers who may be focusing on determining what to do to perform well in society through refusing to be engaged in cross cultural miscommunication. Such data will hopefully be helpful for researchers in establishing their own means of finding out the solution that best suits their situation.
Outline of the assignment
There are different chapters for this assignment. Each chapter has a different focus for a specific course of action that will benefit the assignment. The different chapters will contribute to the success of the assignment and it can be used as a starting point for further studies. The second chapter will be the literature review part. The second chapter used various resources to gather necessary data. The literatures presented will come from books and other sources that are deemed to be helpful in the advancement of awareness concerning the subject. It will give enlightenment on some of the issues in the study. The third chapter will feature more on the Methodology of the study. The third chapter will focus on discussing the instruments and methods used for the study to be a success. The fourth chapter will focus on the presentation of the collected data. The last chapter will focus on the analysis of the data and the concluding part.
Chapter 2 Literature review
While involvement in communicative events is seen as central to language development, this involvement necessarily requires attention to form. Communication cannot take place in the absence of structure, or grammar along with a willingness of participants to cooperate in the negotiation of meaning. The nature of the contribution to language development of both form-focused and meaning-focused classroom activity remains a question in ongoing research. The optimum combination of these activities in any given instructional setting depends no doubt on learner age, nature and length of instructional sequence, opportunities for language contact outside the classroom, teacher preparation and other factors. Numerous sociolinguistic issues await attention. Variation in the speech community and its relationship to language change are central to sociolinguistic inquiry (Byram, 2001). Sociolinguistic perspectives on variability and change highlight the folly of describing native speaker competence, let alone non-native speaker competence, in terms of mastery or command of a system. All language systems show instability and variation. Learner language systems show even greater instability and variability in terms of both the amount and the rate of change. Sociolinguistic concerns with identity and accommodation help to explain the construction by bilinguals of a variation space which is different from that of a native speaker. It may include retention of any number of features of a previously acquired system of phonology, syntax, discourse, communication strategies, etc. The phenomenon may be individual or, in those settings where there is a community of learners, general (Byram, 2001).
Sociolinguistic perspectives have been important in understanding the implications of norm, appropriacy and variability for Communicative language teaching (CLT), and continue to suggest avenues of inquiry for further research and materials development. Use of authentic language data has underscored the importance of context-setting, roles, genre, etc. in interpreting the meaning of a text. A range of both oral and written texts in context provides learners with a variety of language experiences, experiences they need to construct their own 'variation space', to make determinations of appropriacy in their own expression of meaning. Competent in this instance is not necessarily synonymous with native like. Negotiation in CLT highlights the need for interlinguistic, or intercultural, awareness on the part of all involved. Better understanding of the strategies used in the negotiation of meaning offers a potential for improving classroom practice of the needed skills (Byram, 2001). Along with other Sociolinguistic issues in language acquisition, the classroom itself as a social context has been neglected. Classroom language learning was the focus of a number of research studies in the 1960s and early 1970s. However, language classrooms were not a major interest of the second language acquisition (SLA) research that rapidly gathered momentum in the years that followed (Byram, 2001).
The full range of variables present in educational settings was an obvious deterrent. Other difficulties included the lack of well-defined classroom processes to serve as variables and lack of agreement as to what constituted learning success (Byram, 2001). The literature by bryam gave a clearer description of how important is communication to language development. The author provided his idea on what is needed to have a good communication. The author also provided what he believes should be the concern of sociolinguistics. Although sociolinguistics has different issues, one issue that stands out the most is the miscommunication between the various cultures.
Miscommunication in various cultures
The Individuals learn to relate to the environment through communication; therefore, adaptation depends on one's ability to communicate with others in that environment. Individuals engaging in intercultural interactions are faced with frustrations and miscommunication because of the novelty of such situations and that they increase their levels of communicative competence by different means (Burleson & Greene, 2003).The concrete behaviors in which an individual can engage to minimize miscommunication includes the act of treating the other person as an individual, rather than as a group representative; listening and observing carefully; and using other sources of information to test assumptions, such as books or mass media. The risk for miscommunication between age groups is higher when the gap between an elderly person's abilities and an interlocutor's stereotyped expectations are greatest. Thus, there follows the need to narrow this gap and reduce the risk for miscommunication (Burleson & Greene, 2003).
The communication enhancement of aging model (CEA) was developed by Ryan and colleagues in 1995 and it provides insight into how to address the aforementioned need for the reduction of miscommunication because it focuses on personalized intergenerational relations as opposed to the stereotyped expectations described in the communication predicament of aging CPA model (Burleson & Greene, 2003). According to the theory, those who communicate competently with older people begin with a better understanding of the normal aging process and are therefore prepared to communicate on a more participatory and consultative basis. This increased understanding, in conjunction with educational programs about the aging process, develops more positive expectations and stereotypes of the elderly, and interlocutors are therefore better prepared to recognize the elderly person's individual characteristics that may influence communication processes (Burleson & Greene, 2003). For Burleson and Greene miscommunication is due to various instances. They believe that miscommunication is due to the inter culture frustrations and it can be resolved by increased communicative competence. Today, in the field of cross-cultural communication, people must look beyond intellectual exchange. They must realize that not only the acquisition of knowledge of each other's cultures, but also the development of their minds is needed. In cross-cultural communication, people define behavior and language as the tools of communication, where knowledge and information are the data of communication and the mind is the programmer of communication (Sugiyama, 1990).
Many people have been programmed to believe that the objective of communication is to win. In order to win, people are conditioned to use skills such as intimidation, ruthlessness, deception, including misrepresentation and the concealment of facts, and reprisals. Instead, people should develop positive communication skills such as honesty, frankness, gentleness, fairness, reciprocity, and tolerance. When some people negotiate, they often tend to become emotional and lose control. Resentment or bitterness can result when mutual satisfaction is not achieved (Sugiyama, 1990). If they cannot control their minds and emotions, they may even resort to violence in order to satisfy their ego. People are in a quite immature stage in attaining the ideal in cross-cultural communication. They easily get upset when they are faced with differences. It is very difficult for people to accept the diversity of cultures. There should be someone who will break down the people's mental and emotional barriers reciprocally (Sugiyama, 1990). As Sugiyama notes miscommunication can be prevented through removal of some of the negative thoughts about other cultures. Miscommunication can also be prevented through lesser cultural stereotypes.
Intercultural conflict is known as the experience of emotional frustration in conjunction with perceived incompatibility of values, norms, face orientations, goals, scarce resources, processes, and/or outcomes between a minimum of two cultural parties from two different cultural communities in an interactive situation. Intercultural conflicts are sometimes based on deep-seated hatred and centuries-old antagonism, often arising from long-standing historical grievances. However, a majority of everyday conflicts can be traced to cultural miscommunication, lack of understanding, or ignorance. Teaching intercultural conflict management is a challenging, yet rewarding, assignment (Boyacigiller, Goodman & Phillips, 2003). The literature of Boyacigiller, Goodman and Phillips gave a clearer view of what causes conflict and what can be done to prevent it from getting worse. The literature stated what compose of intercultural conflict.
Chapter 3 Methodology
The research will make use of the descriptive method to know the causes of cross cultural miscommunication and how teaching can stop such problem. Descriptive research tries to explore the cause of a particular event or situation. It also wants to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell 1994). The descriptive approach is quicker and more practical in terms of financing (Potter 1996) Moreover, this method will allow for a flexible approach, thus, when important new issues, probabilities, and questions come up during the duration of the study, a further investigation and confirmation may be allowed. Lastly this type of approach will allow the researcher to drop unproductive areas of research from the original plan of the study.
This research is partly based on quantitative research method so as to permit a flexible approach. The choice and design of methods are constantly modified during data gathering based on continuing analysis. This will give way for creation of an investigation of important new issues, concerns, probabilities and questions as they arose. In addition, this study also employed partly qualitative research method, since this research intends to find theories that would explain the relationship of one variable with another variable through qualitative elements in research. The research will also use the statistical research method in carrying out this research project.
Primary data source
Primary research includes the collection of data that has not existed. Gathering primary data involves getting information not yet previously known. The primary source of data will come from an interview that will be conducted. A minimum of five interviews will be conducted. The primary data frequently gives the detailed definitions of terms and statistical units used in the survey. In the primary research, the researchers will look for individuals who they believe have an idea on to know the causes of cross cultural miscommunication and how teaching can stop such problem. After determining what kind of respondents they desire, the researchers will send invitations and requests for a meeting to the chosen respondents.
Once they agree to the interview the respondents will then proceed to do the list of questions. After the list of questions is made, the interview part will then proceed. The respondents will be given ample time to provide answers to the different questions. While the interview is ongoing the researchers will ask questions related to the study that was not included in the list. Secondary data will come from government and industry publications, student-generated data, books, and periodicals. Acquiring secondary data are more convenient to use because they are already condensed and organized. This kind of data can be found anywhere. The researchers work for same organization and because of this they would have access to the needed data at any time needed. It saves more time and effort for the researcher.
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