Management – Organizational Structure and Motivation
Management – Organizational Structure and Motivation
There have been many factors that had affected the process of management, more specifically in the part of the human resource management. Organizational structure can be define that the way or method that an organization chooses to arrange its people as well as the different responsibilities and roles that will enable the work to be done that will eventually help to meet the goals. This essay will tackle the different characteristics and the advantage and disadvantage of the types of organizational structure: the tall and flat structure, and its actual implementation. Furthermore, it will also focus on the similarities as well as differences between the two structures.
Tall Structure and Flat Structure
Tall structure is the structure that is used by organization with numerous levels of management. It is a type of the organizational structure that is distinguished by a balanced, goal-directed hierarchy, distant decision-making, strict controls, and division of different roles based on the managerial positions and areas of labor. The main advantage of the tall structure is that it enables the people to be confined in the areas of their specialization, therefore, improving their skills in that area and become more productive. On the other hand, the main disadvantage is that it can cause different communication problems that will eventually lead to slow decision making. One of the best companies that uses the structure is Tesco, a British-based international company that specialized in grocery and merchandising.
On the other hand, flat structure is also called as organic organization that has one or two stages of management. It focuses on the decentralized approach in management in order to support high employee involvement in the process of the decision-making. The main disadvantage of the structure is that it can cause failure of control. On the other hand, the primary reason why many companies are switching into flat is that it is more appropriate to the prompt responses that are needed in a fast changing business environment, more specifically for multinational companies. Procter and Gamble become one of the most successful multinational companies in the world because of their implementation of flat functional structure.
Tall Structure vs. Flat Structure
Tall and flat structures are two different organizational structures. Tall structure has its constricted span as well as more hierarchical levels, while flat structure has its broad span, together with its discrete as well as less hierarchical levels. The said characteristics, enables the flat structure to become more flexible, more compliant to a participative management form and less alarmed regarding the distinct structure. On the other hand, tall structure enables division of labor as well as specialization of areas that will help to improve productivity. In terms of Procter & Gamble, it had been able to use its structures in order to manage the local needs of their partner countries, due to the broad span of its structure. On the other hand, Tesco uses their structure in order to improve their services to their customers via the use of specializations.
The primary reason for modern companies in switching using the flat structure is due to the force that had been created by globalization. Furthermore, it is used by most companies in order to have a decentralized decision-making that will be helpful for multinational companies in order to think global but act global that will serve as one of the most important strategies in management as well as marketing.
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Each and every individual is predicting futures, and expectations regarding their performance in their workplace. If something is somewhat striking, they know how to obtain it, and believe that they can make difference. It helps to motivates people to perform in order make it come true. Expectancy theory of motivation was introduced by Victor Vroom that focuses on the idea that motivation is center to the outcomes and not on the needs of individual. In addition to that, theory also believes that in order to become motivated, effort, performance as well as the motivation must be connected. There are three important variables that are important in motivation: valence, expectancy or E-P expectancy, and Instrumentality of P-O. Valence pertains to the importance that is being placed by an individual to the predicted outcome. E-P on the other hand, pertains to the belief that an improved effort will eventually lead to a desirable performance. P-O is the belief of someone that if he or she does well, a valued result will be obtained. Expectancy theory of motivation is used by many organizations in structuring and implementing their incentive or reward system with accordance to the expectations of the employees that will help to improve as well as encourage increased in productivity. It is also used by many companies in motivating their employees by linking their effort with the outcome. This is due to the fact that if employees are expecting optimistic and pleasing result, it will eventually make them work hard at the level projected of them.
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