Literature Review Outline :Animal Cruelty with Connected Violence Behavior towards Others
Animal Cruelty with Connected Violence Behavior towards Others
Violence is considered as a learned behavior. Children are learning violent behaviors due to their interaction and influence from their family and peers, together with the observation with their neighborhoods as well as in the community (Focus Adolescent Services, 2008). Many of the violent offenders abused animals are children. Children that are showing different abusive and offensive behaviors towards their family dogs and other pets should be referred to a child psychologist in order to be assessed. This is due to the fact that the said behavior may signify the development of more severe brutal and cruel behavior in the later life (cited in Dadds, Whiting, Bunn, Fraser, Charlson & Pirola-Merlo, 2004, p. 321). On the other hand, children who are cruel to animals are more likely to be juvenile delinquents; however, there are some studies that show that many juveniles who are delinquent do not progress to adult criminality (Hart, 2005). On the other hand, it is also important to consider that those animal-abusive children may themselves be the victims of the same abuse and cruelty inside and outside their homes, from their families and strangers (Lindsay, 2005, p. 192). There are many studies that show the relationship between the cruelty to animal as children and adolescent to the violent behaviors during adulthood. According to the study of Rigdon and Tapia in 1977, 62% of its small sample of 5 - 15 years old still shows cruelty to animals, years after. In 1992 data of The Utah Division of Youth Correction, the adolescent forensic samples show a high percentage of persecuting or hurting animals in the last 12 months. In addition to that, there are many papers regarding the imprisoned adults that show a consistent links between the early day’s cruelty to the animals and the later violent behavior as well as belligerence towards the humans (cited in Dadds et al, 2004, p. 321).
There are many cases that connect the adolescences’ cruelty towards animals and violence against human. One of this is the 1999’s school violence in Colorado, when Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed their 14 classmates and one of their teachers. According to an investigation, the two young men are hurting animals and expressing their interests in the occult rituals (Society & Animals, 2008).
There are different independent variables that are important to consider in order to conduct the study. First and the most important are the parenting variables which pertain on the different factors that are involved in the relationship between the children and the parents. Parental guidance and family relationship is important factor that must be considered in order to know the root of the behavior of a child. This will focus on the different emotions and feelings that are involved in the relationship between the children and their respective families. Another important aspect that must be considered is the environmental/society or the demographics variables. The said variable is important in order to focus on the different factors that are associated with the environment or social aspect that can influence and impact the perspective and behavior of a child. It is also important to use the different social aspects such as the social status of the children in the study in order to analyze whether the social status or the financial status in life can affect the behavior of a children. The last independent variable is the gender, it is important to show the relationship of gender and the behavior.
The dependent variables will focus on the behavior of the children or the way the children express their feelings and emotions with connection with other important independent variables. In connection to that, the mood of the children are also important factor that must be considered in order to analyze the problem, and eventually shows the relationship between the animal cruelty and human cruelty. With connection to the two first said variables, it is also important to include the issue regarding becoming antisocial of the children. The said factor is important because, there are also some of the studies that shows that most of the children who are afraid of the crowd and who are always alone and lonely, has a big chance to become cruel and violent during adulthood.
Both the parenting and social/environmental variables are two of the most important independent variables in this study. All of the dependent variables are connected with the two. The way the parents act, as well as their method and approach of bringing up their children can greatly affect the behavior of their children, including their mood, their relationship with other people as well as their way of handling different situations and emotions. It is important to analyze the different parental factors in order to show that the parents or the family has the great influence over the chosen path or future of their children in terms of violence and behaviors. The society or the environment also has a great impact on the behavior of the children, including their mood and being antisocial, this is due to the fact that most of the children are basing their perspective and learning on what they see and experience in their environment. Sex is also important variables in the study because it can help to show and analyze the difference between the behavior or the way of acceptance between male and female. There are many studies that show that male and female has their different ways of handling different situations.
Unlike, recent researches, this study will focus on the impact of adolescence cruelty to animals, on the issues of cruelty to human. This will help to focus on the growing numbers of children, mostly adolescent, in different crimes towards animals, as well as human. This study will show the connection between the parenting style, family issues, environmental and social situations and status and the adolescents’ violence towards animals. Furthermore, this will also show the connection between violence to animals and cruelty towards human.
Dadds, M., Whiting, C., Bunn, P., Fraser, J., Charlson, J., & Pirola-Merlo, A. (2004), “The Cruelty to Animals Inventory”, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23 (3), pp. 321 - 350.
Hart, S. (2005), Cruelty Animals Human, RSPCA, Retrieved July 23, 2008, from http://www.rspca.org.au/events/seminars05_proc.PDF.
Lindsay, S. (2005). Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training. Blackwell Publishing.
Teen Violence (2008). Focus Adolescent Services, Retrieved July 23, 2008, from http://www.focusas.com/Violence.html.
The Links Between Violence Against Animals & Violence Against Humans (2008). Society & Animals, Retrieved 23 July 2008, from http://www.psyeta.org/beyond_violence.html.
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