Research Proposal on The Problem of Drug Use among Youth in Kenya
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The Problem of Drug Use among Youth in Kenya
Background of the Study
Several problems are being faced by many societies nowadays, given by the fact that the society is continually changing. The changes the society encounter leads to the modification of the lifestyle of many individuals, most especially the younger generation, who become easily influenced and swayed by a number of factors that surround them. Changes in the society are evident in terms of economy, politics, education, industry, and in technology, which depends upon the use and the need of a particular society. In this regard, changes can be seen to bring success and prestige to individuals and societies. However, these changes not only bring about success, prestige, and development to the members of society, but disadvantages and problems as well. Unlike the advantages brought about by the changes in the society, problems and challenges effect chaos and discord among individuals and families. Along with the success and development of societies are the problems its face, including the upsurge cases of drug and alcohol addiction, crimes, graft and corruption, unsafe working and living conditions, poverty, unemployment, illnesses, and deaths. From this, it can be seen that along with the development of societies are its drawbacks that may become part of its consequences.
In relation to all these challenges in the society is one of the gravest problems, which is drug addiction among youths in Kenya. The issue of drug use and addiction is associated to certain concepts, including habit, disorder, disease, abuse, substance, effects, and criminality. Because it is associated with such concepts, it is generally thought of connoting negative impressions and impacts. Generally, the concept of chemical dependency is associated with terms such as alcoholism, drug addiction, and substance use and abuse. Nevertheless, this concept is defined as a disease, disorder or illness that is characterized by addiction to a mood-altering chemical, including drugs and alcohol, thus, transcending age, gender, race, religion, or economic status (Drobes, 2002). It can become a progressive, chronic, and fatal disease if untreated, that is why treatments and preventions are given importance and emphasis, especially with the younger generation. In addition, the concept of chemical dependency is commonly associated with criminality and mental disorders, which are considered the effects of becoming chemically dependent individuals. In this sense, such individuals are termed as Chemically Dependent Criminal Offenders or CDCO, who commit grave violations against other individuals, the community, and the State due to the strong influence of alcohol or drugs. Nowadays, given the changes that take place in the society, most criminal offenders are comprised by adolescents or the younger generation, who become as such due to the influence of drugs or alcohol. According to the Juvenile Rehabilitation Association or JRA, 82% juvenile offenders use chemical substances. The most common major problems among the youth today include substance abuse and drug related crimes. In this regard, several governments come up with ways on reducing criminality and juvenile delinquency through different rehabilitation programs and treatments that would improve the situation of the chemical dependent adolescents in order to improve the society as a whole. However, despite the number of chemical dependence rehabilitation programs, not all are considered to be effective, as many criminal offenders presently convicted were influenced by drugs or alcohol during their crime. As reported, 3 in 4 violent offenders in prison committed their crime offenses under the influence of drugs, with a percentage of 72% (Mumola and Karberg, 2007). In addition, more than half of the prisoners in the United States indicated symptoms consistent with drug dependence or abuse, having a percentage of 53%, and such dependence was associated with a range of symptoms, including behavioral, cognitive, and physiological problems (Mumola and Karberg, 2007). These data indicate that despite the efforts of governments to help the society alleviate the impacts of drug and alcohol dependence, crimes attributed to chemical dependence continue to increase. With this problem at hand, this research study aims to examine the most effective rehabilitation method or technique for the chemical dependent offender population.
Objectives of the Study
This research study will be done to help increase knowledge and information regarding the rehabilitation methods for Kenyan Youth Drug abusers and the effectiveness of a number of rehabilitation methods for their treatment. Hence, this research study will be conducted to determine which of the rehabilitation methods for chemically dependent offender populations is the most effective. The specific research objectives for this study can be summarized as follows:
1) To find out causes of addiction and drug dependency in the target population;
2) To determine the effects of drug dependency to individuals and to the society of Kenya;
3) To determine the different drug and alcohol rehabilitation methods currently used, including its process, duration and development;
4) To identify the elements that foresee substance exploit problems or the problems that lead to drug dependency;
5) To provide an ample assessment of offenders with drug dependency problems;
6) To evaluate processes and tools presently used for testing;
7) To determine alternative treatment methods available for drug dependents;
8) To determine the drug dependent treatment effects of the offenders;
9) To identify the constructive dependency treatment results in offenders;
10) To recognize the impacts of such actions to the society; and
11) To give recommendations to the readers, to the government, and to the society
Statement of the Problem
The increase in the number of drug dependent criminal offenders among youths in the society, the Kenyan government leads to the recognition of a number of drug dependent rehabilitation programs. Due to the perceived significant and essential role played by drug dependency rehabilitation programs in the treatment of drug and alcohol dependents, it is important to recognize the different rehabilitation and treatment methods that would help in the recovery of substance dependents and in the alleviation of the number of criminal cases related to substance use in the Kenyan society. This study intends to examine the most effective rehabilitation program for drug dependent offender population in Kenya. Specifically, the study intends to answer the following queries:
What could be the most recommended drug dependent rehabilitation program for offenders?
What are the risks to be taken note of in undergoing such rehabilitation program?
What are the barriers to be considered in allowing a criminal offender in undergoing the treatment program?
Are there other alternative treatment programs available that could present the same effects and treatment for offenders?
What are strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that can be attributed to undergoing such programs?
Significance of the Study
This research study will be a significant in knowing the perceived best and most effective drug dependent treatment programs for offender population, which could be suggested to the government and to the families of the substance dependent. It will be significant in the development of more scientific and research-based approaches in addressing the different problems regarding the relationship of substance abuse and the increase in youth criminal cases in the Kenya. In addition, this research study can also be significant in providing wider knowledge and alternatives for the government and the families of the substance abusers regarding other available treatment and therapies for the drug dependent offenders. Moreover, this study can be significant in the endeavor for the improvement and development of the services and facilities of different rehabilitation or treatment programs that would further cater to the needs of the chemical dependent offender population in the society of Kenya.
Three kinds of research methods can be used in doing research studies, namely, correlational, experimental, and descriptive method. The correlational method is used with regards to ethical and practical problems with experiments (Neville, 2005). In addition, inferring causality from correlation is not actually impossible but very difficult, so this mode of study is widely acceptable, cheap and usually ethical. Nonetheless, there exist some “third variable” issues and measurement problems in the use of this type of method. In essence, this type of research method refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlational statistics (Neville, 2005).
With this, this study will use the descriptive approach to utilize observations in the study. The research study started by conducting an exploratory type of research in the aim to identify the variables needed. The research study included personal interviews and self-administered questionnaires. In addition, a set of articles and other literature were used in the process of building constructs and identifying variables. After identifying constructs and variables, a questionnaire was made and distributed to respondents from different drug dependency treatment centers and rehabilitation institutions. Particularly, the method utilized in this research study is termed the research onion process, which will be used in order to ensure that the researcher will be able to obtain the necessary data to examine which rehabilitation program is the most effective treatment for chemically dependent offenders.
Drobes, D. (2002). Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Dependence: Mechanisms and Treatment. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 136+.
Mumola, C.J. & Karberg, J.C. (2007). ‘Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004’, Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice, pp. 1-12.
Neville, C. (2005). Introduction to Research & Research Methods. Effective Learning Officer, University of Bradford, 1-44.