The Different Aspects of Human Resources Development
HRD is a combination of structured and unstructured learning and performance based activities, which develop individual and organizational competency, capability and capacity to cope with and successfully manage change.
The paper discusses the different aspects of Human Resources Development. Human Resources Development is defined as a part of HRM that deals with learning, training and development of employees. A deeper analysis of HRD is presented in this paper by studying the concepts of Learning, Performance and Change in HRD. The paper also discusses the different principles of HRD – individual development, career development and organizational development. Human Resources Development (HRD) is a part of HRM. While HRM deals with the overall management of human resources (people), HRD deals with learning, training and development of the human resources with the aim of improving the each employee’s skills and capability and the organization’s performance.
Human Resources Development
Human Resources Development according to Eggland and Gilley (1998) can be defined as the introduction of organized activities designed to foster increased knowledge, skills, and competencies and improved behavior. HRD refers to learning and to the activities that bring about desired change (p.5). Human Resources Development is a part of HRM that deals with the training and development of the organization’s people. According to Sims (2002), HRD coordinates the organization’s efforts to provide training and development experiences for its employees. Employee training can be defined as a planned attempt to facilitate employee learning of job related knowledge, skills, and behaviors or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance. Development is an effort to provide employees with the skills needed for both present and future jobs (p.165).
Learning Implications of HRD
HRD is a series of programs and activities, direct and indirect, instructional and/or individual that positively affects the development of individual and the productivity and profit of the organization (Smith 1988).
According to Donaldson and Scannel (2000), training is an attempt to transfer skills and knowledge to trainees in such a way that the trainees accept and use those skills in the performance of their jobs while learning is a lifelong process in which experience leads to changes within the individual. Learning is a change in behavior resulting from experience. Learning is the act of acquiring knowledge or skill. It is a mental activity by which skills, habits, ideas, attitudes, and ideals are acquired, retained, and utilized, resulting in the progressive adaptation and modification of behavior. Human Resources Management facilitates learning through experience and training. Watkins (1989) defined HRD as the filed of study and practice responsible for fostering of long-term, work related learning capacity at the individual, group, and organizational levels. As such, it includes but is not limited to training, career development, and organizational development. Nadler and Wiggs (1986) defined HRD as a comprehensive learning system that releases the organization’s human potential; a system that is both experience and experiential, on-the-job experiences that are keyed to the organization’s reason for survival. According to Woodall (2003), HRD is concerned with issues of individual, group and organizational learning and performance. It encompasses actions that vary form the everyday tasks of supporting learning and development through training and development through training, to the complex and at times impossible task of making change happen. HRD according to Chalofsky (1992) is the study and practice of increasing learning capacity of individuals and groups, collectives, and organizations through the development and application of learning-based interventions for optimizing human and organizational growth and effectiveness.
It can be drawn from the above definitions that HRD is focused on learning. HRD facilitates organizational learning through training and development of individuals, groups, and organization as a whole. HRD is composed of a series, a lifelong learning that aims to increase the capability of the employees and the organization through performance based activities. HRD can then be described as a comprehensive learning system designed to enhance individual performance for improving organizational efficiency.
Individual development focuses on the importance of personal growth and development through learning programs and activities. Employees are able to develop knowledge, competencies, skills and appropriate behaviors for current jobs. Individual development includes communication, interpersonal skills, and other areas of personal development in addition to training. Learning occurs in both formal and informal settings, while training usually occurs on the job. Individual development activities include all types of learning programs and training activities.
According to Gilley and Maycunich (2000), learning brings about learner growth and development both personally and professionally. As a result, individual and organizational renewal capability increases, as does performance capacity.
Performance Aspect of HRD
Development of employees refers to increasing the knowledge, skills, and competencies of employees, which enhances their performance capacity and capability. Development also refers to increasing an organization’s efficiency, improving its effectiveness, enhancing its renewal capacity, and improving its competitive practices (Gilley & Maycunich 2000). According to McLagan (1989) HRD is the integration of training and development, and organization development to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. HRD is a process of developing and unleashing human expertise through organizational development and personal training and development for improving performance (Swanson, 1995). It is an organizational learning experience sponsored by an employer for the purpose of improving work performance while emphasizing the betterment of the human conditions through the integration of organizational goals and individual needs.
HRD aims to improve and enhance both the employees’ and the organizations performance and capabilities. Increasing the employees’ performance and enhancing their skills and capabilities will result to a better performing organization.
HRD aims to improve individual performance and enhance organizational capability. Performance improvement is achieved if the employees achieve increased knowledge, skills, and competencies and improved behavior.
Organizational development is viewed as a planned, databased approach to change, involving goal setting, action planning, implementation, monitoring, and taking corrective action when necessary. According to Phelps (1988), Organizational development is a continuous process, an ongoing way of managing organizational change processes that, over time, become a way of organizational life. Organizational Change according to Beer (1983) is a system-wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at enhancing congruence between organizational structure, process, strategy, people, and culture; developing new and creative organizational solutions; and developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity.
Human Resources Development is a part of Human Resources Management that deals with learning, training and development of employees with the aim of improving performance of both the employees and the organization. HRD facilitates learning through individual development. Performance improvement is achieved through career development while change occurs simultaneously with organizational development.
HRD aims to provide individual development, improve organizational performance and optimize human potential and organizational performance. HRD’s purpose is to facilitate changes that lead to performance improvements, which ultimately enhance organizational competitive readiness and renewal capacity. This is done through Organizational Development.
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