RESEARCH PAPER ON IMPACT OF SUPERVISION ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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IMPACT OF SUPERVISION ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Supervision is defined as the overseeing of people and activity (MSN Encarta, 2009). The concern on supervision is important as it impacts on employee morale, efficiency and productivity. Productivity measures the efficiency of work by the employees and is expressed as the difference between output and input (Butterfield, 2007). Likewise supervision is imperative in driving the organization towards the achievement of the organization’s goals. Supervision in schools particularly on its staff services is an important concern because it plays an important role in the quality of education that the school provides to its students (Grauwe and Carron, 2004).
The supervisors are relegated with a heavy responsibility of identifying rules and policies, staffing, training and development and employee performance. Thus supervisors should be well aware not only of the group’s goals vis a vis the goals of the organization but also on the tasks and activities of the team. (Anonymous, n.d.) Pierce and Rowell (2005) identified ten key tasks of supervisors that are linked to productivity these are: support for the growth of the team, inspiring unity, praise and commendation, setting a high bar for excellence, requiring accountability, verifying potential, instilling independence, continuous sharing and communication, optimizing ownership and reinforcing relationships. These tasks are applicable in all settings and types of organizations from the business industries, to not-for-profit organizations and educational institutions. Similarly, Grauwe and Carron, (2004) identified three factors that determine effectiveness of supervision on the efficiency of the work personnel. These are roles and function, organizational structure and the employees’ workload.
There are several types of supervision, depending on the type of personality that the supervisor has. Each type also has differing impacts on staff attitude, behavior, efficiency and ultimately their productivity. The major types are the classic type, transformational leadership and transactional leadership. The classic styles of leadership are either laissez faire, autocratic and democratic. Laissez-faire supervisors are permissive leaders. This type of leadership works well with an organization that require very little supervision and direction. Autocratic leaders make decisions without the participation of the employees. This type of leadership is effective in crisis situations. In normal situations autocratic supervisors are likely to be resented by employees. Democratic leaders are open to inputs and suggestions from the employees but make the final decisions himself. This leadership style while it motivates workers also maintains the order of the organization. The transformational leadership style works well with organizations where the employees attend to the details, while the leader attends to the bigger picture. Transactional leadership style expects submission by employees and works well with unskilled workers that require autocratic supervision. Situational leaders are flexible leaders who can shift his orientation depending on the need of the organization. Orientation can be task-oriented or people-oriented. (Kelchner, 2011)
The review of literature above suggests that different supervisory styles are effective in increasing workers productivity depending on the nature and current organizational situation. While secondary schools are an educational education with an open atmosphere for learning and flexibility, it is assumed that the situational supervisory style and laissez faire style is most appropriate and are likely to increase staff productivity.
While there is a dearth of studies concerning the impact of the type of supervision on staff productivity among schools particularly, secondary schools. Mode of supervision and its impact on the productivity of teacher was studied. Akinwumi (2002), investigated the impact of the mode of supervision on teacher productivity in a secondary school in Nigeria using an ex-post facto methodology. The results revealed that supervision has no significant impact on the productivity of teachers belonging to the low-income or high-income socioeconomic status. However supervision has a more significant impact on public school teachers than on private school teachers. In some organizations that employ hourly ranks, such as in the assembly line work, supervision is necessary. Without supervision there is a decrease in inefficiency and poor productivity among employees. (Wikoff, nd)
A research on the impact of supervision, or the type of supervision on the productivity of secondary school staff is a new direction in the study of supervision vis a vis productivity. The significance of this recent research endeavor will be helpful in identifying specific supervisory practices that impacts positively on productivity of school staff and ultimately the improvement of the educational services towards a better quality education offered to secondary students.
Akinwumi, FS., 2002. Mode of Supervision and Teacher Productivity. Also published in Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology Vol.8(2) 2002: 219-228. Abstract only. [online] Available at: < http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njccp/article/view/23926> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
Anonymous, n.d. How to Improve Employee Productivity. [online] Available at: <http://www.taskmanagementguide.com/solutions/articles/employee-training-productivity-increasing.php> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
Butterfield, C., 2007. Chasing Productivity. [online] Available at: < http://perkspub.com/content/view/294/0/> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
Grauwe, A., and Carron, G., 2004. Module 4: Management of Supervision Staff.[online] Available at: < http://www.iiep.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Cap_Dev_Training/Training_Materials/Supervision/SUP_Mod4.pdf> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
Kelchner, L., 2011. Different Supervisory Styles of Managers. [online] Available at: < http://www.ehow.com/info_7736754_different-supervisory-styles-managers.html> [Accessed 13 may 2011].
MSN Encarta, 2009. Supervise. [online] Available at: < http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/supervision.html> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
Pierce, RA., and Rowell JS., 2006. The Ten Keys to Effective Supervision: A Developmental Approach. Pdf. [online] Available at: <http://www.risingsunconsultants.com/images/white_papers/PDFs/Supervision-Short.pdf> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
Wikoff, D., n.d. Working without supervision: Overcoming inefficiencies, lost productivity. [online] Available at: < http://www.reliableplant.com/Read/11465/lost-productivity> [Accessed 13 May 2011].
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