Research Proposal on Change Management
Research Proposal on Change Management
Change management is a structured approach to shifting and transitioning individuals, teams and companies from the current, initial state to a desired future state. It is normally a top-down change process. As with every plan to embark on major changes, it is wise to begin with a systematic analysis about leadership styles and group dynamics. Organizational Change Management aligns groups’ expectations, communicates, integrates teams and manages people training. It makes use of performance metrics, such as financial results, operational efficiency, leadership commitment, communication effectiveness, and the perceived need for change to design appropriate strategies, in order to avoid change failures or solve trouble change projects. (Wikipedia)
According to an article on Team Technology on Change Management, there are five basic principles which should be kept in mind:
1. Different people react differently to change
2. Everyone has fundamental needs that have to be met
3. Change often involves a loss, and people go through the "loss curve"
4. Expectations need to be managed realistically
5. Fears have to be dealt with
Here are some tips to apply the above principles when managing change:
· Give people information - be open and honest about the facts, but don't give overoptimistic speculation. I.e. meet their openness needs, but in a way that does not set unrealistic expectation.
· For large groups, produce a communication strategy that ensures information is disseminated efficiently and comprehensively to everyone (don't let the grapevine take over). I.e.: tell everyone at the same time. However, follow this up with individual interviews to produce a personal strategy for dealing with the change. This helps to recognize and deal appropriately with the INDIVIDUAL REACTION to change.
· Give people choices to make, and be honest about the possible consequences of those choices. I.e. meet their CONTROL and INCLUSION needs
· Give people time, to express their views, and support their decision making, providing coaching, counseling or information as appropriate, to help them through the LOSS CURVE
· Where the change involves a loss, identifies what will or might replace that loss - loss is easier to cope with if there is something to replace it. This will help assuage potential FEARS.
· Where it is possible to do so, give individuals opportunity to express their concerns and provide reassurances - also to help assuage potential FEARS.
· Keep observing good management practice, such as making time for informal discussion and feedback (even though the pressure might seem that it is reasonable to let such things slip - during difficult change such practices are even more important). (Team Technology)
Organizational change can be defined by the following (Changing Minds):
The Change Imperative:
no organization can ignore it.
- Historical change- the bottom line is that change is eminent. Technology and science continue to revolutionize our work. Global economy and politics affect businesses, making it important to change.
- The Red Queen effect- this is a term used by biologists to describe the evolutionary necessity to evolve faster than one’s competitors. In a highly competitive advantage, being first counts, coming in second you get to pick at the crumbs.
- The Reengineering trap- The term ‘reengineering’ was used as a loose cover for serious cutbacks and restructuring in which there was only a noticeable focus on the short-term. Change does not mean firing one’s employees as they are the lifeblood of the organization.
- Competitive advantage- change is a competitive advantage. The ability to change means survival.
- The psychology of change: starts from the very beginning. Manage the initial announcement to change by thinking about the effects it will have and stage the communication in a way to have the impact and effect you desire.
o Initial concerns: The threat to deep systems.
o Initial reactions: Negative or positive?
o The Kübler-Ross grief cycle: The emotional cycle on given bad news.
§ Shock stage: Initial paralysis at hearing the bad news.
§ Denial stage: Trying to avoid the inevitable.
§ Anger stage: Frustrated outpouring of bottled-up emotion.
§ Bargaining stage: Seeking in vain for a way out.
§ Depression stage: Final realization of the inevitable.
§ Testing stage: Seeking realistic solutions.
§ Acceptance stage: Finally finding the way forward.
o The positive change cycle: Even good news has its ups and downs.
o Resistance to change: When people push back against the change.
§ Rationale for resistance: What people tell themselves.
§ The resistance zoo: the animals and their styles of resistance.
§ Signs of resistance: spotting subtle signals of dissent.
§ How to cause resistance: there are many ways!
o Strong and weak commitment: After an agreement, commitment may vary.
- The Kübler-Ross grief cycle: The emotional cycle on given bad news. These stages are useful to understand and facilitate change.
o Shock stage*: Initial paralysis at hearing the bad news.
o Denial stage: Trying to avoid the inevitable.
o Anger stage: Frustrated outpouring of bottled-up emotion.
o Bargaining stage: Seeking in vain for a way out.
o Depression stage: Final realization of the inevitable.
o Testing stage*: Seeking realistic solutions.
o Acceptance stage: Finally finding the way forward.
- Lewin's freeze phases: Unfreeze, transition, refreeze are stages of change according to a psychologist Kurt Lewin and which are still the basis of many approaches today.
- Resistance to change: When people push back against the change. Resistance comes in many forms- active or passive, overt or covert, individual or organized, aggressive or timid.
- Rationale for resistance: What people tell themselves.
- The nature of opposition: knowing your 'enemies' in change.
- The resistance zoo: the animals and their styles of resistance.
- Signs of resistance: spotting subtle signals of dissent.
- Dealing with resistance: a range of methods may be used.
- How to cause resistance: there are many ways!
- Responding to unexpected resistance: When faced with pushback, what do you do?
Change Management. Wikipedia. Retrieved 17 May, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Change_management
Change Management. Changing Minds.org (n.b) Retrieved 17 May, 2011 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/change_management/change_management.htm
Five Basic Principles, and How to Apply Them. (n.b.) Team Technology. Retrieved 17 May, 2011 from http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/changemanagement.html