The Associated Effect of Poor Drainage System
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The Associated Effect of Poor Drainage System
Poor drainage system cause many sad tales due to tremendous problems it create in the
environment such as in the case of Nigeria. Lack of effective drainage system is
associated with floods which impacts natural or manmade dams. Poverty force people in
Calabar to occupy areas which are prone to floods or landslide where these areas have no
effective drainage system. Urban environments in Nigeria has a lot of problem consequently
due to poor drainage system especially in the city of Calabar. Flooding is the consequence
of inefficient drainage system. Calabar is a fast growing city in terms of infrastructural
development by means of construction and concreting the city. This study will highlight on
the implication on the environment of poor drainage system and suggest possible ways to
elucidate drainage system problems in the Calabar Metropolis.
Area of Study
Calabar city lies on a peninsula formed by the Calabar River, Great Kwa River, the Cross
River State estuary and the Atlantic Ocean. The type of climate in Calabar is sub-
equatorial. Its temperature is moderately high and not fluctuating greatly. The two major
drainage systems of Calabar are: Calabar River system and Great Quo river system. The
annual rainfall in this area exceeds 300 millimeters where most comes from the rainy season
during months of May to October. The region is known to be prone to soil erosion most
especially in areas like Barracks road, Otop Abasi, Target street, Goldie, etc.
Discussion: Causes and Effect of Inefficient Drainage System
In the study, qualities of drainage system in Calabar Metropolis were determined. It was
found out that the drainage systems in the area were not well designed. Aside from that,
others are not functioning well due to very narrow gutters. Improper plastering of gutters
were also noted. Generally, the quality of drainage system in the area was observed to be
low and poor. Also, assessment in the adequacy of drainage system in the Calabar was
found to be insufficient. It was noted base on the study that the major cause of inadequate
drainage systems in Calabar are due to the following reasons: 1) inadequate funding; 2)
government negligence; 3) low level of technical know-how; 5) poor monitoring and
evaluation of site; 6) lack of information and communication on the state of drainage facility.
In connection with the study, direct cause of the inefficient drainage system in Calabar
Metropolis is due to disposal of solid waste into gutters. It was also noted that the drainage
are not wide enough and that drainage connectivity is poor. Use of sub-standard materials
for construction is also the reason for this problem.
Study shows that environmental problem is the result of poor drainage system. Soil erosion
is one of the problem brought by ineffective drainage system. Other factors which this
concern brings to Calabar is the deposition of debris and distortion of aesthetic environment.
Dreadful condition in the Calabar Metropolis is the effect of poor drainage system in the area.
Seriously, it greatly affects the environment in the said region.
As the case study progress, it was determined that whenever there is development and
urbanization, rate of infrastructures rises. To match the level of development in the area of
study, especially in the area of housing, provision of drainage facility on road construction
and concretization of land surface should be of high quality . Environment damage and
degradation leads to destabilization of socio-economic activities and urban infrastructures.
Thus, the following recommendation were given to aid in the rising of poor drainage system
in the region:
· Proper channel of drainage systems should be made
· Before construction of gutters, a proper study of topography of the area is recommended
· Dumping of wastes in gutters should be strongly avoided
· Provision of large drainage system
· Greening the area is encouraged
· Ensure proper connectivity of the drainage system
· There should be provision of drainage facilities in every street and road
· Expansion of width, length and depth of drainage systems
· Use of high quality materials in the construction of drainage facilities
· An effective drainage design and technical capabilities should be improved
· Routine reporting, monitoring and evaluation should be made
· Create laws that will allow punishment of those who dump their waste products in the drainage channels
With the recommendations stated above and assurance that the government of Calabar will
do something about improper drainage facilities in the area, there definitely will be
improvement in the metropolis environment more so when it rains.
1. R.A. Offiong, J.E. Atu, G.N. Njar and U.A. Amuyou, Problemsand, 2008. Prospects of Poor Drainage Systems And Urban Sustainability in Calabar, Nigeria [Online] Available at: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/index/index.php/gjss/article/viewFile/107/pdf [Accessed 29 April 2011]