Thesis Research Proposal on Recruitment and Selection in Human Resource Management: The Case of Singapore Airline Ltd. (SIA)
Category : Human Resource Management of Airline Companies, Recruitment and Selection, Singapore Airlines, Thesis Research Proposal Samples
Recruitment and Selection in Human Resource Management: The Case of Singapore Airline Ltd. (SIA)
1.1.1 Research Topic
People are considered as the best asset or resource for any company in any industry, that is the reason why most of the companies are investing huge amount of capital in HRM process. Specifically, recruitment and selection process are vital for these two are the first and fundamental stages in managing human resource, ensuring that only those candidates with the highest capabilities, skills and talents conforming to the standards of the company will be chosen.
1.1.2 Singapore Airline Ltd. (SIA)
Singapore Airline Ltd. (SIA) owns the national airline of Singapore, Singapore Airlines. It was established as Malayan Airways Ltd. In 1947 and changed its name to SIA in 1972. SIA has 5 subsidiaries, which include SilkAir (Singapore) Pte Ltd., SATS (ground-handling), SIA Engineering Company, Tradewinds Tours & Travel and SIA Cargo (SIA 2011). In 2009 alone, SIA already has operating fleet which includes 107 passenger aircraft: nine B747-400s, 77 B777s, A380-800s, A380-800s, A330-300s and Airbus A319s all of which are in average age of 5 years to 11 months. SIA sustained its leading position in airline industry in Singapore by marketing activities and efforts, cutting the capacity, at the same time increasing the passenger load, and by continuously innovating and improving in offering high-end technologies for its new products and services in-flight. As a result, in 2009, the company holds majority of the industry with 58% value share in the air industry in the country. In order to maintain this position, SIA focus on establish its core strategies on the basics that have served it well in maintaining its long-term future by focusing on its people or HRM and its overall systems and infrastructure, which result in offering enhanced, improved and innovative products and services meeting the ever changing demands and needs of the customers (Euromonitor 2010).
2.0 Research Objectives and Research Questions
2.1 Research Objectives
The main aim of the study is to investigate the current recruitment and selection process in SIA. In line with this, the following are the specific objectives of the study:
- To assess the current procedures and steps followed by SIA in its recruitment and selection process;
- To evaluate the different internal and external factors which affect the current recruitment and selection process in SIA; and
- To recommend actions and strategies to be implemented in order to enhance or improve the current recruitment and selection in SIA.
2.2 Research Questions
1. What are the current methods and approaches used by SIA in its recruitment and selection process?
2. What are the different factors which affect the recruitment and selection process in SIA?
3. What are the strategies and techniques that SIA can be employed in order to improve its current recruitment and selection process?
3.0 Literature Review
3.1 Human Resource Management
Currently, human capital is considered as one, if not the most important, resource in an organization. Human capital pertains on the knowledge, skills and abilities of employees or the staffs (Hayton 2005aHa). People have a vital role in the process of establishing and implementing strategy, including strategic decision-making and making the planned strategies successful (Stonehouse and Campbell 2004, 258). Due to its importance inside the company, different strategies, approaches and models are being used in order to properly and successfully manage it. Most of organizations and companies in the world, despite or regardless of their industries and sectors believe that people are the most vital asset, thus people or human resource is one of the most vital aspects of an organization.
Human resource management (HRM) is a process of bringing an organization and its employees together in order to meet the goals and objectives of the employees and the overall aim of the organization or company (Goyal 2005). Thus, HRM includes all vital activities which are related in managing employment relationships inside the organization (Lin, Peng and Kao 2008). It is the general term that is used in order to describe the entire decisions and strategies of an organization to influence the nature of relationship between the organization and its respective employees or the human capital (Beer et al. 1985).
It is important to take note that applying strategic HRM enables companies and organizations to have an internal capacity to adapt and adjust to their competitive environment, being affected by different macro- and micro-environmental factors through the alignment of their HRM polices and standards (Kidwell and Fish 2007). Some of the important policies and standards are recruitment and selection and training and development procedures (Petrescu and Simmons 2008; Verano-Tacoronte and Melián-González, 2008). The capability of an organization to develop and improve its HRM practices which matched its overall business strategy is commonly the source of sustainable competitive advantage, thus, help in order to ensure and maintain position in the market (Barrett and Mayson 2007; Andonova and Zuleta 2007).
Currently, due to the different changes and development in both local and business environment, the process of human resource management have become more and more complicated, complex and harder than before. This is because of the fact that those vital internal and external macro- and micro-environmental factors, specifically globalization and enhancement or development of technology have made companies to experience intensive competition of vital human assets or in labor force. Therefore, in order to maintain competitive advantage via human capital, it is important for an organization to have a specific strategy in ensuring that the company or organization is very attractive to potential employees. This pertains on the process of recruitment and selection.
3.2 The Human Resource Management Process
Storey (1995) defined human resource management as “a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce using an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques” (Storey 2007, p. 7). According to Storey (2007) HRM is universal, meaning every organization or firm has to utilize, then, in some way, to manage human resource. (p. 197). Two of the classic texts in HRM identified 4 areas (employee influence, human resource flow, reward systems and work systems (Beer et al. 1985)) or 5-step cycle (selection, performance, appraisal, rewards and development (Fombrun et al. 1984)). These two can be used in order to evaluate HRM in any company or organization anywhere in the world (cited in Storey 2007m p. 197).
Figure 1 shows the human resource management process. It shows that HRM is an aspect of the process which enables organization to achieve its objectives. Once the general direction and strategy have been established and plan, the next stage is to devise and plan the objectives of the organization or company and into action plans. The objective cannot be achieved without the needed resources, which particularly focus on the people or human resource. As a result, HRM should be a part of a procedure, which focuses on the requirements of the people, at the same time focus on how those requirements can be used, how to obtain them and how to manage them. All of these factors should be fully integrated with all other vital management procedures (Kaila 2005).
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 The Human Resource Management Process (Kaila 2005, p.13)
Source: (Kaila 2005)
As a result, HR management process involves sequenced activities (figure 2), which include:
- Job analysis and design
- Human resource planning and forecasting
- Employee recruitment
- Employee selection
- Training and development
- Performance planning and evaluation
- Compensation and benefits (Gitman and McDaniel 2008, p. 204).
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2 The Human Resource Management Process (Gitman and McDaniel 2008, p. 205)
Source: (Gitman and McDaniel 2008)
The process is sequential and interconnected because employees cannot be trained and paid until they are selected and placed in a specific job or position, which follows recruitment, and is preceded by HR planning and job analysis and design. Overall, good HR practices apply this process in order to promote performance improvement, knowledge and skills development and retain those employees who are considered as asset to the company (Gitman and McDaniel 2008)
3.3 Employee Recruitment
Recruitment “is the process of seeking applicants for job vacancy” (Clarke 1996, p. 6). According to Dale (2003) recruitment process is more complex than encouraging people, for it focus on attracting the right people, a the right time, gain their attention and interests on what is being offered and tempt them to react via submitting an application (p. 50). Consequently, recruitment lead to application and short-listing and its effectiveness is being affected by the content and medium of recruitment, as well as the process of gathering information, forecasting, decision-making and supply of information. Gathering of information focuses on gathering information regarding the physical, behavioral and biographical attributes of the applicants. On the other hand, prediction focuses on transforming and connecting this information regarding the future behavior and contribution of the applicants towards and goals and objectives of the organization (Dale 2003, p. 94).
In the recent years, the attention and importance given to the issue of employee recruitment by many researchers have increased (e.g. Billsberry 2007; Breaugh, Macan and Grambow 2008). Furthermore, there is also an increase in the number of literatures and researches being published which focus on the different topics and issues about employee recruitment. For instance, the study of Saks (2005) focused on the application of realistic job previews or offering job applicants with correct information regarding the job or tasks which he or she will be doing in the future, traditional recruitment methods such as newspapers and advertisement, and the attributes of the recruiter, such as their behavior and approach. Recently, researches such as Boswell et al (2003) and Dineen et al. (2007) have focused on other important issues such as the timing of the recruitment actions, site visits of the recruit and the growing importance and application of on-line recruitment.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 3 Recruitment Process Mode (Breaugh, Macan and Grambow 2008)
Source: (Breaugh and Macan 2008)
Figure 1 shows a model of recruitment process. It shows that before deciding about the methods to use in recruitment, it is first vital to focus and establish the recruitment objectives. Figure 1 show the possible objectives which are showed in box 1. After establishing the recruitment, it is important to develop a rational strategy and actions in order to fill the open positions. Figure 1 shows the possible questions a company or organization must answer in order establish recruitment strategy (box 2). After this, the organization or company must do recruitment activities based on what have decided about the strategy to be used. The final stage will then focus on evaluation of the results of recruitment, by focusing comparing the objectives with the outcome. By doing this, it will help the organization or company to learn from its experience, in order to implement more effective recruitment process in the future (Breaugh 2008). The vital part of the model is the “intervening job applicant variables”. It is important to take note that these variables must play a vital role in how the organizations or companies will plan their recruitment procedures and processes.
There are two vital sources of job applicants, including internal and external labor markets. The internal labor market is consists of employees that are currently employed by the organization, while the external labor market is the pool of possible applicants outside the organization.
Internal recruitment can be implemented with ease with the help of human resource information system (HRIS) wherein information about skills inventory, background information about the employees’ past working experience, education, certifications, career preferences, performance and attendance can be retrieved and accessed. By which, promotions and job transfers are the most common outcomes of internal recruiting. Companies like Ritz-Carlton Hotels, Wal-Mart and Boeing Aircraft, are among of the large companies which are implementing this recruitment process. On the other hand, external labor market is consists of those candidates which fill positions that cannot be filled from inside the organization. The most common methods used are print, radio, web and television advertisement (Gitman and McDaniel 2008, p. 207).
The study joint study of the Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) and Aon Consulting, the top ten most common sources of job applicants or the most common methods used of companies in attracting applicants are: employee referrals, newspaper ads, recruiting firms, college recruitment, contingent firms, job fairs, the Internet, targeted minority recruiting, walk-ins, and government employment services (Arthur 2006, pp. 96 – 97).
According to “ABC Guidelines for Successful Recruitment”, in order to recruitment process to be successful, it is important to consider 26 factors and attributes, which include the following: Attractive, Believable, Centered, Diligent, Emphathetic, Flexible, Greedy, Hip, Informative, Judicious, Knowledgeable, Linear, More, notorious, open-minded, persistent, quick, realistic, tireless, “xentigious”, youthful, and zealous (Arthur 2006, pp.4 – 6).
3.4 Employee Selection Process
Employee selection process is “the process of choosing the best individual from a group of applicants who are well suited for a specific job” (Vallabhaneni 2009).In addition, it also concerns on training needs identification, health and safety determination, rational salary structure, performance appraisal and reorganization of the workforce of an organization (Cooper, Robertson and Tinline 2003, p. 31).
According to Vallabhaneni (2009), there are different factors which affect the recruitment process, which include: (a) competition with other companies, regarding the compensation package, the salary, and safety and health conditions in the working environment; (2) legal and regulatory requirements, such as discrimination against age, gender, race, ethnicity, etc., (3) speed of decision-making regarding the terms of filling the job; (4) the type of job to be filled; (5) the type of the organization that is recruiting (e.g. private, public, non-profit); and (6) the length of probationary period (Vallabhaneni 2009, p. 106).
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 4 Factors Affecting Employee Selection process
Source: (Vallabhaneni 2009, p. 106)
Gitman and McDaniel (2009) proposed a model of selection process, which include 6 stages, which include: initial screening: application and interview; employment testing; selection interview; background and reference checks; physical examination; and decision to hire (figure 5).
1. Initial screeding – during this stage, an application completes an application form, and/or submits resumé or curriculum vitae and will undergo a brief interview or no more than 30 minutes. This will include information about educational background, experience in work and job duties and responsibilities performed;
2. Employment testing – during this stage, the applicant may be asked to take one ore more tests. Tests can help in order to assess and evaluate the special job skills, aptitudes as well as personality and attributes of the applicants;
3. Selection interview – in this stage an in-depth discussion regarding the work experience, skills and abilities, duvcation as well as interests of the applicants will be done. Applicants may be interviewed by different people. It will help in order to measure the communication skills and motivation of the applicants;
4. Background and reference check – for the past few years, more and more companies and organizations, such as Disney, American Airlines and Microsoft are focusing on investigating the backgrounds of the employees, particularly those related with their legal history, reasons for leaving past jobs as well as creditworthiness. This help them to acquire more information about the behavior and performance of the applicants;
5. Physical exams and drug testing – it is important to have medical and physical checkup in order to ensure that the applicant is physically capable of performing their tasks. On the other hand drug testing is also vital, particularly for those transportation and health care industries. Some of the companies implementing this are: Southwest Airlines, Texas Health Resources, Postal Service and BNSF Railway.
6. Decision to hire – if an applicant progresses through all the selection phases in satisfactory manner, then the decision to hire will be made by the manager of the new employee.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 5 Employee Selection Process
source: (Gitman and McDaniel)
In assessing and evaluating if an employee will pass in every step or stage in selection process, it is important to focus on the different factors and their respective indicators, which will ensure that the applicant is fitted for the position to be filled. The study of Golec and Kahya (2006) showed factors and measure indicators to be considered in the selection process, which is shown in figure 6.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 6 Factors and Measure Indicators to be Considered in Selection Process
Source: (Golec and Kahya 2006)
3.5 Recruitment and Selection
The integration and relationship between HRM and strategy of an organization is considered as the one of the most vital factor in HRM theory and application from its traditional personnel management origins. In order to acquire and maintain this strategic integration and connection, it is important to anticipate that each of the bundle of activities in HRM will be integrated in similar manner to align their strategies. Recruitment and selection has been considered as a key activity withing HR (Milmore 2003).
In the past, recruitment and selection were considered as traditional based on psychometric model (Newell and Rice 1991; Storey and Wright 2001), wherein the effort of an organization focus on the person who will do a given job in effective manner and evaluating applicants against defined attributes and characteristics to create a person/job fit. However, in more recent years, different evidence pointed out on vital developments and improvements in recruitment and selection processes, specifically in terms of their focus and sophistication. It had become more driven by strategies and premium is positioned on selecting employees against the criteria of the organization, rather than job-specific one (Bowen et al. 1991). The study of Wilkinson and van Zwanenberg (1994) showed that this strategic movement and change has demanded the application of more sophisticated selection approaches and greater involvement of line managers in the process. Most of these improvements have encapsulated in different strategies used in recruitment and selection, which as been showed as the natural adaptation of more traditional methods in offering greater relationship between resourcing of the employees and the strategy of the business (Thornhill et al. 2000).
Recruitment and selection process can be evaluated from different perspectives and views, such as: applicant, recruiter and employer. For the past years, there has been growing literatures and studies regarding the perspectives of the applicant and the recruiter (i.e. HIghhouse and Hoffman 2001; Ryan and Ployhart 2000). On the other hand, regarding the perspecitve of the employer or the organization, there has been little interests for selection processes (i.e. Cochrane, Tett and Vandecreek 2003; Keelty and McDonnell 2002); and there are only few about recruitment in the perspective of the employer or the organization (Murphy and Bartram 2002).
3.6 Benefits and Importance of Recruitment and Selection Process
Current changes and development in both macro- and micro-environment including globalization, intensive competition for both internal and external customers, and survival, it is vital for organization to respond the fast changing global environment. Thus, the continuous process of attracting and retaining high-quality individuals and employees is very important in order to respond the ever-changing environment. Hiring the competent and reliable people is very important and it is dependent on effective and efficient recruitment and selection process, which focus on selecting the right people and rejecting the wrong one (Bach 2005).
Effective and efficient recruitment and selection practice can mean the difference between the failure or success of an organization. Differences in the skills among the candidates translate into performance difference on the position that have financial and economic influence on the overall performance of the organization. Hiring people with the right skills, talents and knowledge or the highest degrees of those skills will help in order for the company to have positive economic results, specifically those related with the revenue, sales and profits. Hiring a person with the wrong set of skills can cause problems and risks for both that individual and the organization or employer. Furthermore, efficient recruitment and selection procedures help to point those job applicants with the efficient degree of knowledge, abilities, capabilites, and attributes needed in order to have successful performance in a given position or in the entire organization (Catano 2009, p. 5).
First, it is important to consider that recruitment and selection process is the fundamental or basic process in HRM – it is the starting point of the entire process, therefore, in order to make the entire HRM process successful, it is vital to start it right. Recruitment and selection process must be taken seriously by the employer or organization because failure to do so can cause employer and organization huge amount of money. Poor recruitment and selection process can cost an organization an amount, which can be more or less 30% of the entire first-year earnings of the organization (Hacker 1997 cited in Bach 2005, p. 115) These costs include those related to problems like: low productivity, possible loss of clients or customers, training costs, advertising costs, recruitment fees and redundancy packages (Smith and Graves 2002 cited in Bach 2005, p. 115).
Catano (2009) summarized and listed the most effective recruitment and selection practices based on different empirical studies, which resulted in having competitive edge in the market. According to the author, the following are the best practices:
- Lessen employee turnover and increase productivity – a one-standard-deviation increase in applying sophisticated and high-end HR practices and procedures helped to lessen turnover by 7% and increased sales by $27,000 for every employee every year;
- Recruitment and selection procedures enabled to increase 15% of the entire profit of the organization;
- Correlate with the long-term profitability and productivity ratios of the organization;
- Enabled the establishment of trust;
- Enhance the knowledge, skills, capabilities, learnings and abilities of the current and future employees of an organization;
- Enhance motivation of the employees;
- Retain high-quality employees, at the same time encourage those poor performers to leave the organization (cited in Catrano 2009, p. 5).
Overall effective and efficient recruitment and selection process enabled to enhance the overall HRM process, at the same time, help in order to enhance the overall performance of the organization.
4.0 Research Methodology
The study is descriptive. Creswell (1994) described that descriptive method enables researchers to focus and show the different facts, information and factors regarding the standing or position of the issue or problem as it current happens during the time of the study. With this, it can help in order to discuss and describe the current conditions or cases as it happens. The study used qualitative method, which is defined as a situated activity which put the observers to the world by using interpretative and material approaches and tools which will help to make the world visible, consequently help to transform that world (Flick 2009).
Secondary data was used in the study, which was gathered via different resources which include the company website, articles, newspaper clips, journals and studies about SIA and textbooks. Online libraries such as EBSCO, EMERALD, SAGE, SCIENCE DIRECT, WILEY ONLINE were used in order to gather data in faster and easier manner.
Secondary data analysis was used in the study. It is the analysis of data that have already been collected and used in the past (Kumar 2008). It enabled the researcher to study the raw materials of the past researches in order to have ideas in methodological and theoretical manners. Thus, it helped in order to gain necessary background and help to focus on re-contextualization and re-construction of data (Moore 2006).
5.0 Data Analysis
5.1 Strategies and Core Competence of SIA: Its HRM
SIA had enabled to acquire the most vital aspect of strategic success, which is sustainable competitive advantage. According to Braun (2006) competitive advantage is a condition which helps companies to perform in a more effective or higher quality manner compare to its direct or indirect competitors (cited in Khosrowpour 2006, p. 108). Although the airline industry, and the entire travel and tourism industry in the world have been affected by many macro- and micro-environmental factors, such as terrible business cycle, overcapacity, difficulty of offering unique products, high-risk profile, structural cycle and intensive competition, SIA still managed to maintain its position in the market for its entire operation in the industry.
One of the core factors in the competitive success of the company is its ability to manage and shift between poles, which SIA believe that the company is very effective in: offering high quality of service in cost effective manner, at the level of costs which can be compared to other budget airlines. The company managed to focus on its differentiation by focusing on excellence of service and innovation and aligning vital functional strategies including human resource, marketing and operations with its business level strategy (Heracleous and Wirtz 2006).
The study of Wirtz, Heracleous and Pangarkar (2008) based on the interviews with senior management of SIA and experienced flight crews and staffs, 5 elements were formed as the foundations and bases of HRM of SIA and its excellent service strategies: strict and strong selection and recruitment processes; extensive training and re-training; establishment and development of efficacious service delivery teams; enablement and empowerment of frontline employees; and employee motivations (see Appendix A).
According to Jim Collins the people or the employees are the most important asset, thus, the wrong people are considered as liability for the organization. Thus, recruitment and selection process are considered as the fundamental and basic steps in ensuring good performance and productivity from the entire human resource of the organization.
SIA has 4 levels or grades on its workforces, which include seniors vice president; vice presidents, senior managers & managers; administrative grades; and general grades (see Appendix B). The administrative and general grades are those who are commonly under the regular recruitment and selection process of the company. The administrative grades include generalist administrative officers, specialists and trainee station manager. On the other hand, the general grade includes those who are involved in the service or the frontline of the business, including service crew, etc.
5.2 Recruitment and Selection Process in SIA
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 7 Recruitment and Selection Process in SIA
Figure 7 shows the recruitment and selection process of SIA. It includes 7 stages in order for the applicant or the candidate to be part of the SIA team. However, before the application starts, advertisement of job vacancy always comes first. First and foremost, advertising for job vacancy in SIA is not a big problem, for SIA is considered as one of the biggest and most loved employers in Singapore and other parts of the globe, with this, there are numbers of aspirants who are waiting for opportunities in order to become part of the team. In spite of the strict and stern pocedures and processes regarding the appearance and behaviour, there are still lots of young and educated people coming from different parts of the globe because of the fact that SIA is considered and perceived as glamorous and high in social status. Furthemore, SIA has a reputation as a leader in the airline industry and the entire travel and tourism industry, not just in Asia, but in the world. As a result, talents and applicants are very interested in working for the company. In addition, many school leavers and graduates considered SIA as a vital company to for and the company is considered as a vital opportunity to move to a more profitable and well-paid jobs and positions in other companies after working with SIA after years (Wirtz et al.2006).
SIA maintains its communication with the external candidates or applicants, primarily through its own website. On its website, it has a “career” menu which enable the visitor to view and explore the available positions or possible careers in the company (see Appendix C). This enable the viewer to see the qualifications, requirements and processes that are needed in order to apply for the job, including those related to benefits, salary, opportunities, etc. The applicants can submit their application online on its high-end recruitment system (see Appendix D). The system enables the viewer to easily search and track for the available position in the company in different parts of the globe. At the same time, it allows applicants to add and update their profile, which serve as their application form. The system also accepts uploading of resume or curriculum vitae. The application are regularly monitored by the HR department, which decides and schedules about the next stages of recruitment and selection. This system offers advantages both to the company and the applicants by saving money, effort and time.
Figure 7 shows that there rigorous and strict selection process that the applicants must undergo in order to be positioned or be offered by the company. There are different criteria and attributes that the applicants must pass in order to go up to the final process, which is offer.
The study of Wirtz et al. (2006) showed that for cabin crew applicants, there are numerous criteria and procedures to be passed in order to be hired. The initial criteria include age ranges, academic qualifications and physical characteristics and appearance. After doing these preliminaries, the applicants will have to undergo three rounds of interview, uniform checks, a water confidence test, a psychometric test and they are asked to attend a tea party. This will help in order to measure the confidence, communication skills, composure, etc. of the applications. Due to these rigorous procedures, according to Wirtz et al. (2006) from 16,000 applicants that SIA are receiving every year, only 500 to 600 new cabins are hired in order to cover the 10% turnover rates of the company, including voluntary and direct attribution.
Interviews include group interviews in order to have an overall evaluation of the applicants. Then, they will have an English passage reading in order to evaluate their competence in language and communication. This will further be tested and evaluated by the next round, which include a one-on-one-depth interview, which will help in order to assess if the applicant is properly informed and has the core values and competence which is dependent and based on that of SIA. After this, a psychometric test will be administered in order to confirm the results of the first interviews (Wirtz et al. 2006). Psychometric testing is considered as one of the oldest and most used selection test. It helps in order to identify and measure the mental characteristics and attributes of the applicant. Commonly, the test falls into two group: ability and personality tests. Ability test or also called as aptitude tests are designed in order to mimic the work requirements so that a reliable and steady sample of work is needed to be done by the candidates and their performance can be measured. On the other hand, personality test focuses on measuring the distinctive and essential characteristics and attributes of the applicants, codify and analyze them, then compare with others (Roberts 1997). On the other hand, the uniform test enables the interviewer to evaluate the look of the applicants wearing the sarong kabana of SIAs. This assessment includes different attributes including posture, gait and the overall physical appearance and appeal of the applicant wearing the uniform. Those candidates who passed this stage will have to undergo the water confidence test, which will be done in the training pool of SIA, located on its flight safety wing. The applicants will be asked to jump from 3 meters height. This will measure the confidence of the applicants with the water, including their composure and calmness in case or situation that they have to assess and help passengers during emergency evacuation on water. In general, it will focus on those fears and phobias that will endanger the life of the passengers and other employees in case of emergency due to panic. Those who will pass the stage will have to undergo another interview with the senior vice president and senior cabin crew staff. Then, in the last stage, those who will passed from the scrutiny of the upper managers will have to attend a tea party. This will help in order to further observe and assess the communication and interaction style, behavior and conduct of the applicant.
However, the process does not end there, the newly hired or offered crews will undergo preliminary training, and then they will be prudently monitored and assessed for the first 6 months of flying via monthly reports from the supervisors. This will be done during the probationary period. Typically, around 75% are confirmed for the first five-year contract, 20% enable to extend their probation, while the remaining leave the company.
The result of the study of Wirtz et al. (2006) showed that the senior managers stated that the company is looking for employees or staffs, specifically those who are in front-line to focus on their customer-relationship. They must know how to understand and sympathize with the passengers or the visitors, and must be cheerful, happy, approachable, friendly and unassuming.
All of these strict procedures and processes help in order for SIA to ensure that they will hire those applicants who have met the standards of the company, and who will be asset and contribute to the overall competitive advantage of SIA, by ensuring good quality of service to be offered to the passengers/customers. According to Wrigth et al. (2006) because of its meticulous recruitment and selection process, SIA only records 3% to 4% selection rates.
6.1 Recruitment and Selection Process in SIA
6.2 Factors Affecting Recruitment and Selection in SIA
Appendix A: 5 Elements of Leadership for Service Excellence Strategies of SIA
Source: (Wirtz et al. 2008)
Appendix B: SIA Workforce Grades
Appendix B: Screenshot of SIA’s Website’s “Career” Menu
Appendix B: Screenshot of SIA’s Recruitment System
9.0 List of References
Andonova, V and Zuleta, H 2007, “The effect of enforcement on human resource practices”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 344 – 353.
Arthur, D 2006, Recruiting, Interviewing and orienting new employees, AMACOM, New York.
Bach, S 2005, Managing human resources: personnel management in transition, Wiley-Blackwell.
Barrett, R and Mayson, S 2007, “Human resource management in growing small firms”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 307 – 320.
Bartell, S M 2001, “Training’s new role in learning organizations”, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Beer, M, Lawrence, P R, Mills, D Q and Walton, R E 1985, Human Resource Management, Free Press, New York, NY.
Billsberry, J 2007, Experiencing Recruitment and Selection, Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Boswell, W R, Roehling, M V, LePine, M A and Moynihan, L M 2003, “Individual job-choice decisions and impact of job attributes and recruitment practices: a longitudinal field study”, Human Resource Management, vol. 42, pp. 23 – 37.
Bowen, D E, Ledford, G E and Nathan, B R 1991, “Hiring for the organization, not the job” Academy of Management Executives, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 35 – 51.
Breaugh, J A 2008, “Employee recruitment: current knowledge and important areas for future research”, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 103 – 118.
Breaugh, J A, Macan, T H and Grambow, D M 2008, “Employee recruitment: current knowledge and direction for future research”, In: G. P. Hodgkinson and J. K. Ford (Eds.), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (45 – 82), vol. 23, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Catano, V 2009, Recruitment and selection in Canada, Cengage Learning.
Clarke, J 1996, Staff Recruitment, Combat Poverty Agency.
Cochrane, R E, Tett, R P and Vandecreek, L 2003, “Psychological testing and the selection of police officers: a national survey”, Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 511 – 537.
Cooper, D, Robertson, IT & Tinline, G 2003, Recruitment and Selection: A Framework for Success, Thomson Learning EMEA.
Creswell, J W 1994, Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.
Dale, M 2003, A Manager’s Guide to Recruitment and Selection, Kogan Page.
Dineen ,B R, Ling, J, Ash, S R and DelVecchio, D 2007, “Aesthetic properties and message customization: navigating the dark side of web recruitment”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 92, pp. 356 – 372.
Euromonitor 2010, Singapore Airlines Ltd (SIA) – Travel and Tourism –Singapore, Accessed in: http://www.euromonitor.com/ [April 26, 2011].
Gitman, L and McDaniel, C 2008, The Future of Business: The Essentials, Cengage Learning.
Golec, A and Kahya, E 2006, “A fuzzy model for competency-based employee evaluation and selection”, Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 143 – 161.
Goyal, R C 2005, Hospital administration and human resource management, 4th edn., PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Hayton, J C 2005, “Promoting corporate entrepreneurship through human resource management practices: a review of empirical research”, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 21 – 41.
Heracleous, L and Wirtz, J 2006, “Biometrics – the next frontier in service excellence, productivity and security in service sector”, Managing Service Quality, vol. 16, no. 1, no. 1, pp. 12 – 22.
Highhouse, S and Hoffman, J R 2001, “Organizational attraction and job choice”, In C. L. Cooper and I. T. Robertson (eds.) International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 37 – 64), John Wiley, UK.
Kansal, B B and Rao, P C K 2006, Preface to Management, Paragon Books, New Delhi.
Kaeter, M 1991, ‘Quality Training’, Quality, no. 3, pp. 14 – 25
Kaila, H L 2005, Human Resource Management (2 Vols.), Gyan Publishing House.
Khosrowpour, M 2006, Dictionary of Information Science and Technology, Idea Group Inc (IGI).
Kidwell, R E and Fish, A J 2007, “High performance human resource practices in Australian family business: preliminary evidence from the wine industry”, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1 – 14.
Kumar, R 2008, Research Methodology, APH Publishing.
Lin, C H, Peng, C H and Kao, D T 2008, “The innovativeness effect of market orientation and learning orientation on business performance”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 752 – 772.
Lloyd, K 2002, Be the Boss Your Employees Deserve, Career Press.
McConnell, J 2003, How to Identify your Organization’s Training Needs: A Practical Guide to Needs Analysis, AMACOM Division American Management Association.
Millmore, M 2003, “Just how exclusive is the practice of strategic recruitment and selection?”, Irish Journal of Management, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 87+
Moore, N 2006, “The contexts of context: broadening perspectives in the (re)use of qualitative data”, Sociological Research Online, vol. 12, no. 3, Accessed in: http://erdt.plymouth.ac.uk/mionline/public_html/viewarticle.php? [April 27, 2022].
Motwani, J, Frahm, M & Kathawala, Y 2004, ‘Competitive Advantage Through Quality Training’, Training for Quality, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 35 – 40.
Murphy, K R and Bartram, D 2002, “Recruitment, personnel selection and organizational effectiveness”, In: I.T. Robertson, M. Callinan and D. Bartram (eds.), Organizational Effectiveness: The role of Psychology (pp. 85 – 113), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Newell, H J 1991, Fields of Dreams: Evidence of ‘New Employee Relations’ in Greenfield Sites. D. Phil. Dissertation, University of Oxford.
Petrescu, A I and Simmons, R 2008, “Human resource management practices and workers’ job satisfaction”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 651 – 667.
Roberts, G 1997, Recruitment and Selection: A Competency Approach, CIPD Publishing.
Ryan, A M and Ployhart, R E 2000, “Applicants’ perceptions of selection procedures and decisions: a critical review and agenda for the future”, Journal of Management, vol. 26, pp. 565 – 605.
Schermerhorn, J 2009, Management, John Wiley and Sons.
SIA 2011, Introduction, Accessed in: http://www.singaporeair.com/saa/en_UK/content/company_info/siastory/index.jsp [April 26, 2011].
Sims, R 1990, An Experiential Learning Approach to Employee Training Systems, Quorum Books, New York.
Stonehouse, G and Campbell, D 2004, Global and transnational business: a strategy and management, John Wiley and Sons.
Storey, J 2007, Human Resource Management: A Critical Text, Cengage Learning EMEA.
Storey, J and Wright, M 2001, “Recruitment and selection” in I. Beardwell, I and Holden, L (eds). Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach (pp. 225 – 264), 3rd edn. Financial Times-Prentice Hall, London.
Thornhill, A, Lewis, P, Millmore, M and Saunders, M 2000, Human Resource Strategy Approach: Managing Change, Pearson Education, Harlow.
Vallabhaneni, D 2009, What’s your MBA IQ?: a manager’s career development tool, John Wiley and Sons.
Verano-Tacoronte, D and Melián-González, S 2008, “Human resource control systems and performance: the role of uncertainty and risk propensity”, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 161 – 187.
Wilkinson, L J and van Zwanenberg, N 1994, “Development of a person specification system for managerial jobs”, Personnel Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 25 – 36.
Wirtz, J, Heracleous, L and Pangarkar, N 2009, “Managing human resources for service excellence and cost effectiveness at Singapore Airlines”, Managing Service Quality, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 4 – 19.
Read our customer feedbacks